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The failure of Woodrow Wilson to win the consent of the Senate for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles

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  1. The seeming neutrality of the United States
  2. Roots of Wilson's failure to win Senate ratification of the treaty
  3. Two major groups of opponents struggled against Wilson in order to reject the Treaty of Versailles in the Senate

The Treaty of Versailles put a final conclusion to the World War I in June 1919, but the consequences of this 6-month bitter negotiation between the "Big Three" had the greatest influence on the course of the following twenty years. The Armistice signed on November 11th, 1918 had formerly ended the actual fighting, but the victors of the bloodiest war of history were strongly determined to impose their conditions on the peace terms. The democrat President had already exposed his famous fourteen points to the Congress in 1917 and it was decided to take advantage of his popularity to establish self-determination, free-trade, and to create a League of Nations. Unfortunately, Wilson's idealism faced the harsh reality of negotiations with England and France. Not only was it difficult for Woodrow Wilson to implement his fourteen points, but it was also a challenge for him to convince the American people that the path he was building was the right one to follow. Despite incredible efforts to rally to his cause the senators and the public opinion, the Treaty of Versailles was rejected by the American Senate. Consequently, any hope of building an extravert foreign policy was swept away.

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