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The refusal of "the exclusive colonial power" by Latin America

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  1. The tyranny form of government
    1. The concept of power
    2. The tyrant, the sole holder of power
  2. Tyranny, a controversial and transient system
    1. A controversial system
    2. A transient regime

The settlement resulted first in a strategy of barter, and later, in an economy in search of riches. Two types of wealth are pursued: natural resources (wood, sugar etc), and the wealth of production (metals associated with the myth of El Dorado). This concern raises the issue of wealth management. Hence the establishment of a system to integrate Latin America into the global economy took place, with economic circuits controlled by Europeans. They wanted to gain control of this "world economy" (Fernand Braudel), by a system of interdependencies of which Europe was the centerpiece, as it was the exclusive colonial power. However, this European domination was not accepted. The exclusive colonial power elicited a defense of protests. Thus, it is interesting to speculate in what ways this manifests U.S. rejection.

In a perspective of a strong "demand" in Europe from the late Middle Ages, there is a process of economic growth that fuels the demand for luxuries. This supports the improvement of living conditions of the elite, from the twelfth century that resulted in increased trade with non-European regions. So, since the late Middle Ages, Europe has continued to increase its external exchanges (especially with Asia).

But Spain is in the extreme west of Europe with poor access to the road for Asia and Africa, not to mention that she is disadvantaged for precious metals because of the Portuguese monopoly. Spain, therefore, sought a new route. In fact, with the discovery of these territories, America's primary concern was to identify and then loot the wealth of pre-Columbian populations.
? From 1492 to 1520, in a span of thirty years, 550 tons of gold were found.
But a problem soon materialized: wealth was depleted quickly because there is no production. A mining economy was set up including:
? mining region of Zacatecas (north)
? the mines of Potosi (Peru, South)

This extraction reached its peak from 1600 to 1640 with a maximum value in each decade of more than 120 million pesos. So the city of Potosi appeared to represent the famous El Dorado. Between 1640 and 1650, the mining boom weakened and gave way to a "mining crisis". During the eighteenth century, especially after 1750, there has been some recovery in output, even if it falls below the figures of the seventeenth century. This is due to the improvement of skills.

So, for half a century, the Potosi mine embodied the dream. But such an economic phenomenon has strong social implications. This city built on a mountain of money in the eighteenth century became the largest city of the West (in the seventeenth century, it had over 150 000 inhabitants).

Thus, the city of Potosi is a melting pot of economic, cultural strains. The mining town was primarily a city of mixed race. It was also a city of ostentation, which is seen through the architecture of the mining towns.

Tags: architecture of the mining towns, city of Potosi, Fernand Braudel, El Dorado, Zacatecas

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