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Turkey: between secularity and Islam

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  1. Introduction
  2. The beginning of Nationalists drift
    1. The progressive integration of Jews
    2. The legacy of traditional Judaism
    3. Persistent prejudices
  3. The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
    1. The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
    2. Strengthening the construction of identity in race
    3. Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
  4. The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
    1. Of termination to the exclusion
    2. The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
    3. Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism

In the Ottoman Empire, Islam dominated the society as a whole. It pierced through all the principles, policy decisions, legal, cultural and social aspects. The Ottoman Empire recognized all religions and their respective rights. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire took the path of a gradual secularization of the regime. During the nineteenth century, the ideas of the French Revolution penetrated within the Ottoman elites who tried to understand the reasons for the supremacy of the West. These ideas provided a plausible framework. The Young Turk power was more radical, and more secularized during the war. This century paved the way for radical reforms of Kemalism. The secularization of Turkey and Turkish society does not date from the Republic. In Turkey, secularism or laiklik is considered the result of modernity rather than democracy. Secularism in Turkey follows a different path than that of its French model. In France, secularism is characterized by the separation of state affairs and the Church, the State is neutral towards other religions and there is secularization of public space. In Turkey, religious affairs are not independent but are regulated by the state. Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938) imposed an authoritarian manner from the abolition of the caliphate on March 3, 1924. Atatürk wanted a radical break with the Ottoman past and wanted to distance itself from Muslim countries, including Arab countries. He wanted to bring Turkey into Western civilization. In the 1950s, with the advent of democracy, Islam re-emerged in the everyday life of Turks.

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