Democratic evolution of Russia: Why the failure?
- The UN works for peace
- Pacific battle and destabilization of Europe
- USSR and the US
'Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality': These are the pillars of the Tsarist regime defined by Count Uvarov, Minister of Public Instruction under Nicolas I. This motto seems very far from democracy, understood as a form of government in which the people hold sovereignty. From the moment of coming to power, the Tsar set up a repressive censorship, a political police militarization of the state apparatus. This despotic stance was a reaction to the failed uprising of the Russian elites, the Decembrists in 1825. Therefore, the Czar helped split the Russian Empire in the Western world and erect autocracy as the foundation of the Russian regime and the stability of the throne. In 1853, Nicolas I led his empire in the disastrous Crimean War against the Ottoman Empire, France and the United Kingdom. By 1855, Sevastopol, an ancient symbol of Russian expansion, fell to the opponents. This was a clear sign of the decline of Russian power. The 'Tsar Liberator', Alexander II, the successor of Nicolas I, did not make any mistakes, and initiated a modernization process in 1855, apparently for democratization. 1917 marked the end of the Tsars and the beginning of the communist dictatorship. Why did the democratic development under the reign of Alexander II fail? How did the transition from one autocracy to another take place? Initially, the reign of Alexander II heralded the democratization of the Russian regime. In the second step, the reign of Alexander III began a hardening of the regime that would led to its destruction.