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  1. Outline the tests the courts apply in deciding whether an object is a fixture or a chattel, and discuss whether you agree with the statement
  2. In what circumstances may a person who finds an object on, or under the surface of, someone else's land claim ownership of the object? Is the law on this subject satisfactory?

In English Law, there is an uneasy distinction between a category of fixtures and chattels. According to Kevin Gray & Susan Francis Gray, the difference between fixtures and chattels is that fixtures are "physical objects which are regarded as acceding to the realty" in opposition with chattels which are "physical objects which always retain their independent character as personalty". Fixtures are materials which will always belong to the freeholder. On the other hand, chattels are "physical objects which retain their statute as personalty even though placed in some close relation to the land and may be removed at any time by their owner". The ownership of an object found on someone else's land depends on whether it was found under the surface, or under the surface of the ground.

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