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Maritime: Its Commerce and Litigation

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

In this paper, we study the various aspects of Maritime transport,its economic ups and downs and its laws.

Maritime transport from a long time has remained the only means of communication between countries separated by the sea; it plays a vital role in the international economy. Today the traditional ship is disappearing. The current units are often regarded as common to the Seaway. Even their appearance varies depending on their task. After the cargos, the conventional container ships began and then the supertankers, the chemical tankers, the ferries etc.

Today, because of competition the airlines provide, passenger liners have been converted into cruise ships. Shipping is subject to many constraints. National fleets protect the independence of a country. The maritime industry provides foreign exchange and supports foreign trade.
All economic activity requires transportation from the source of the raw materials to production centers of finished goods and transportation from these centers to points of consumption.

The service (of transportation) is available either within continents or between continents. In both cases, they are implementing maritime assets. Shipping is a multimodal transport that is preceded or followed by a continental transportation, rail, river or road.

This activity has strict regulations. In France, the Disciplinary and Penal Code of the Shipping Act (January 2, 1979) provides for a fine of up to one million francs and a prison sentence up to two years for violations of the regulations that are set up to prevent collisions at sea.

Evolution of the industry in the last 30 years:
The world's trade in merchandise has increased fivefold in just 30 years and dry goods are transported in larger amounts. To meet this need for greater transmission capacity, the world's fleet increased to 789.

Road transport:

The transport could be door to door and retail. i.e. direct delivery from the producer to the customer. With the advent of the automobile, the road has become a major thoroughfare. Road transport is present in various forms. Either the transport is done from city to city for larger loads of 10 to 38 tons (the consolidation). This second form comes into competition with rail networks. It is estimated that the average distance of travel of a load is 300 km.

The relationship between road transport and shipping:
Direct transhipment on trucks is useful as merchandise is shipped in small batches.
The technique of ?Roll on / Roll' off also helps the speed of a ship. Vehicles are loaded directly on to vessels by rolling and cross bodies of water. On other ships, loading only trailers saves the cost-of-way (driver and tractor).

Air Transport:
Air Transport is characterized by their speed and also by their high costs. The speed factor is useful for moving people or perishable goods, valuables or urgent deliveries. Poor countries use much of this means of transportation because it does not require a very well developed infrastructure on the ground. The airlines may also provide internal circulation in countries that have large expanses of land (like the USA or Russia)

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