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Convention on the Rights of the Child in New York

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

The rights of the child emerged after a long struggle against prejudices and steadfast beliefs. Until the late Middle Ages, there was no social consciousness of the existence of children as a group within society.
Until the Enlightenment, child rights in any form did not exist. According to the laws in the middle ages, the child did not exist. Their legislation showed no proof of their existence and the child was considered to be the sole property of his father. Although the church had charitable orphanages for poor orphans it was not until the Enlightenment that children were recognized as a social group.

The writings and beliefs of the philosophers during the Enlightenment translated to the absolute necessity of giving more protection to children and through the legislation. The nineteenth century saw the increased interests in the welfare of children and encouraged legislative reforms of children's rights in society.

But, both nationally and internationally, it was not until the twentieth century that children were taken into serious consideration. At the beginning of this century most industrialized countries were adopting laws on child protection and compulsory education. At the Hague Conference (in 1902), the Treaty for the settlement of the guardianship of minors was drafted and the International Labor Organization(in 1919) established the minimum age for child labor .
The Rights of the Child was adopted by the Assembly of the League of Nations in 1924.

In its first session, the General Assembly of the United Nations created the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to help the children of Europe after the war.

The New York Convention on the Rights of the Child was a result of necessary compromise and introduced a new, child-centered agenda that promotes the growth and development of the child. It confirms the existence of the child as a member of the family and gives the child inalienable rights and states that these are indivisible and interdependent rights that are inherent to the dignity of a human being.

The Convention omits to mention the traditional distinction between civil, political, social and economic rights. The Convention enshrines the rights of a child as fundamental right but the scope and recognition of these rights are questionable.

Before we talk about the events of the convention, let us clarify a few things -

Etymologically, the term ?child' comes from Latin and it means ?the infant that does not speak'. The ?infant' that is referred to here is what we call a toddler. Today the term is more inclusive.

The first article of the Convention states that a ?child' refers to means every human being below the age of 18 years unless he/ she has attained majority by the law that is applicable to him.

The Committee on the Rights of the Child has identified general principles in the Convention that are a valuable reference for the States that will implement it. We will look at these these principles briefly and then move on to the topics of non-discrimination, the best interests of the child, the survival and development of the child and finally, respect for the views of the child.

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