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Protecting ecological migrants

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

Migration is often presented as a as a dramatic consequence of climate change. Migration-related disruptions in the environment have created a new genre. Unbearable environmental conditions such as rising sea levels, desertification, earthquakes or floods have forced certain populations to leave their region of origin. These migrants who have been forced to escape these conditions are what we call ecological migrants.

Many articles regularly report the painful experience of the people of Tuvalu (where) who were forced to survive on their atoll until the sea engulfed it or that of the Africans of Lake Chad, whose living area is dwindling day by day.These people are generally very poor and are the first victims of environmental degradation and climate change.

Environmental migration -

To some extent, this phenomenon is not new. People have always migrated to escape extreme weather conditions, variations in temperature, droughts and floods. In his book ?Collapse', Jared Diamond also tells of the histories of major civilizations and their destruction caused by the mismanagement of natural resources. He gives us the example of the Easter Island. This is one of the most isolated islands in the world and lies between Chile and New Caledonia. The only indications that it was home to a thriving civilization are the mysterious statues that still exist. In the span of a few centuries, the islanders rose to a golden age of decadence thanks to the island being a source of diamonds. Unfortunately this let to the massive exploitation of natural resources. In addition to this, the combined effects of a growing population, the isolation of the island and their inability to adapt led to their downfall.

Environmental refugees - a heterogeneous and multifaceted reality:
The heterogeneity of the ecological dimensions of migration makes it increasingly difficult to define environmental refugees. It is especially difficult to distinguish the real causes of migration. Often, the environment is not the only factor for the migration. The environmental problems are combined with poverty and poor development; these factors are rather revealing characteristics of the vulnerability of societies. This often leads to emigration and it is for these reasons that the problem of ecological refugees generally affect the poorest countries.

The concept of environmental migration is difficult to explain because of the complexity of the factors involved. In addition to this, the terminology that is used to describe this phenomenon is not fixed. One definition of the term "environmental refugees? is - ?a term that includes persons who are victims of natural and human disasters that have damaged the environment?. This definition, adopted by El Hinnawi, includes all "those who are forced to leave their living temporarily or permanently due to environmental disruption (that are due to natural or man made causes) that put their lives at risk or seriously affected their living conditions.?
The term ?refugee' has broad implications as it includes the victims of disasters that are caused directly by humans, like Chernobyl or Bhopal.

However, this definition relates to the same realities that concern environmental refugees.

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