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The provisions of the law that relate to sexual violence during an armed conflict

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

This paper explores the issue of sexual crimes in a zone of armed conflict. This issue has been around since the 15th century; however it was not until the 19th century that people realized that rape was occurring extensively during these times and required special prohibitory laws.

The first laws against sexual violence in war zones were put forward in the Hague convention to protect the civilians in these areas.
The Lieber Code
This code was prepared by Francis Lieber in the context of the American Civil war. It was approved of by President Lincoln on April 24th, 1863 and given the title ?Instructions for the Government of the United States Army in the Field'
Article 44 of this document criminalized rape in a war zone. The document stipulated that "Any deliberate violence against individuals in the invaded country, all destruction of property not ordered by a qualified officer, theft, looting, sacking, even after taking a place by force, all rape, maiming or killing of its inhabitants, are prohibited under penalty of death or other severe punishment proportionate to the seriousness of the offense. Any soldier, NCO or officer, engaged in such violence and disobeying a superior who ordered him to abstain, may also be killed on the spot by a superior officer.?
This code has exerted a great influence on subsequent efforts to codify the law of war at an international level.

The Hague Convention
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 (the last revision of the Convention of 1899) also address the topic of rape in Article 46 but it simply states that "the honor and the rights of the family must be respected. "
The second limitation of these agreement ids that it does not criminalize the individual who violates the law but put the responsibility on the country to which the individual belongs.

The laws that decided the crimes of war, after the Second World War were stated in two international instruments:

- The Statute of the Military Tribunal of Nuremberg annexed to the London Agreement of 8 August 1945.
This charter made no reference to rape. Only the Law No. 1O of the Control Council, (which governed the proceedings against the war criminals who deemed less important in Germany by the four allied powers) expressly mentioned that rape is a crime against humanity.

- Section 5 of the Charter of the International Tribunal for the Far East

In 1945, despite repeated rapes committed by the Nazi and the Japanese armies during the war, rape was not mentioned in the Statute of the Nuremberg Tribunal. The subject of rape was deliberately avoided.

But in Tokyo some members of the armed forces were sentenced for rape or for failing to prevent atrocities committed by their subordinates. It should be noted that rape was never the only charge; it was among many others that the individual was charged with.

Thus the Japanese General Yamashita was condemned for not taking the steps necessary to avoid atrocities inflicted ob civilians during the occupation of the Philippines between October 1944 and September 1945.

Following the atrocities committed during this troubled period, the Geneva Convention (hereafter CG) in 1949 set up the rules of law for armed conflicts.

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