The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid
- Foreign Aid
- The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid
The Sudan is a vast area extending from the Red Sea at the Horn of Africa in the East to the Sahel regions in the North and the Equatorial rainforest at its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo in the West. It used to be one country, the Republic of Sudan, but the South split away from the North in 2010 through a referendum to form the Republic of South Sudan, formally constituted on 9 July 2011 (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Santschi, 2012). The conflict in the Sudan lasted from 1955 to 2005 when the Government of Sudan signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Sanstchi, 2012). More than 2 million people died in the conflict and over twice that number were displaced and their livelihoods disrupted, and while some died as a result of violence during the conflict, 97% of the deaths were caused by disease and malnutrition (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Santschi, 2012). Currently, international aid assistance accounts for approximately 3% of Sudan's economy and more than 15 million people directly depend on foreign aid programs according to a United Nations Environmental Programme report (UNEP, n.d.).
[...] (2012). Livelihoods, Basic Services, and Social Protection in South Sudan. London: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium. THE EFFECTS OF WAR AND PEACE ON FOREIGN AID UNEP (n.d.). International Aid and the Environment. [...]
[...] Secondly, foreign aid fuels the war economy by providing the mean of sustenance to drivers, managers, translators, and hotel owners through direct and indirect employment, and also sustains the war effort for warring sides who steal relief items, communication equipment, vehicles etc from aid convoys in order to sell at a profit (Lassiter, 2007). When aid becomes such a means of sustenance, all sides in the conflict develop a stakeholder mentality and eschew a cessation of hostilities. In the Sudan, this was seen when relief supplies were stolen and diverted; foreign aid became an important source of livelihood and wherewithal for the SPLA in the war effort (Lassiter, 2007). [...]
[...] It then used the money obtained from food sales to finance the war effort (Lassiter, 2007). Government-led interventions in post-conflict livelihood support in the Sudan have been minimal, though some efforts have been made. According to Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Santschi, 2012), the Sudanese government used loans from the World Bank and money acquired from investments by oil-producing countries to finance large-scale agricultural production for export purposes. Other interventions were directed at settlement of migratory pastoralists. In 2006, the ?Green Alert Programme? was introduced by NCP to the tune of $ 1.4 billion to increase crop and livestock production over a 4-year project (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Sanstchi, 2012). [...]