Marketing, animal imagery, marketing strategy, advertisement, brand content, brand image, advertiser, mascot, pets, anthropomorphism, Belgian market, field study, domestic animal, wild animal, Aubel, Volkswagen, Voo, Miu Miu, Facebook, Pokémon, Garancia, IGN, WWF World Wildlife Fund, Havas Worldwide, Brandfirst Interactive, Marketing mix, market segmentation, target audience, Porter's 5 forces, Mercedes-Benz, micromarketing, Kotler, retail, animal well-being, promotions, Lancel, Orange, Carrefour, logo, stand for, Orangina, RATP, Audi
Nowadays, the use of animal imagery is all around us. Every day we are exposed to animals that are used by advertisers to assist in promoting brands and products. They are used in a variety of ways, for example as advertisements, logos, brand names, mascots, and so on. The present study seeks to contribute to our understanding on the use of animals in all these different depictions.
In order to lead our analysis, we built our thesis on a solid theoretical basis and offer a complete literature review including scientific papers and specialised marketing books. Furthermore, we conducted interviews with advertising agencies, a field study on companies, and a quantitative analysis on the use of animal imagery in advertisements. The findings help us to better understand the elaboration, expectations and tendencies of the image of animals in advertisements.
As a first step, we analysed the definition of marketing and, more precisely, of marketing strategy. Thanks to the first chapter, we explored the different levels of marketing strategy. It was essential in order to see later what the image of animals can achieve in the levels of marketing strategies.
[...] This is the recent case of Armani in March 2016. Armani joined the growing list of brands that have already banned fur such as Hugo Boss, Tommy Hilfiger, Calvin Klein, Zara, Massimo Dutti, and many more. In fact, companies are evolving and trying to do what is good for the animal cause because this is also good for themselves. In 2004, Philip Kotler and Nancy Lee already wrote about corporate social initiatives with the mention of "socially responsible business practices: adapting and conducting business practices that protect the environment and human and animal rights." A great example of such flashover is the company The Body Shop. [...]
[...] Journal of Advertising - 130. Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A. & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Creating social connection through inferential reproduction: loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychological Sciences - 120. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research - 373. Fournier, S. & Yao, J. [...]
[...] These firms do a better job in satisfying the needs of specific niches than a broad strategy, and thus can be highly profitable. However, one downside is that this strategy involves higher than normal risks. This is due to the fact that companies rely on one or a few segments for all of their business and if the segment turns sour or a larger competitor decides to enter the same segment with greater resources, they will suffer. Micromarketing (local or individual marketing) strategy tailor products and marketing programs to meet the needs of various market segments and niches, it includes local marketing and individual marketing. [...]
[...] The Animal as Wild or Domestic F. The Animal as Real or Drawn G. Conclusion Conclusion Bibliography Appendices 1. The US VALS[TM] segmentation system 2. End the cage age for Europe's rabbits 3. Examples of objects looking like animals of Pylones 4. Animals "Naturally Juicy" of Orangina 5. Examples of removed advertisements 6. RATP's advertising campaign "Restons civils sur toute la ligne" 7. The Doberhuahua of Audi 8. The evolution of three different mascots 9. Examples of Facebook page for mascots 10. [...]
[...] We did so in order to have a more pragmatic point of view of the use of animal imagery in marketing communication in addition to our field study on different companies. Our objectives were to understand if one type of animal was more used for a specific sector, and if this animal was real or a cartoon/computer animation, anthropomorphic or in natural state, wild or domestic. In total, we collected 172 advertising. This study, together with previous scientific papers, has found several tendencies of the use of animal imagery. [...]
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