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Does History “stop”, “start”, and “accelerate”?

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  1. Introduction
  2. The technical end of the twentieth century
  3. Speculation on the new beginning with the end of the twentieth century
  4. The structural evolutions that occurred between the Roman Empire and during the 1600's in Europe
  5. The period between 1989, the end of the 20th century
  6. Conclusion
  7. Bibliography

The fall of the Berlin wall symbolised the end of communism, and the victory of liberal democracy. The suddenness with which the soviet empire collapsed, without any resistance, authorised the idea that democracy was going to triumph all over the globe. Fukuyama exposed in a very controversial article ?The End of History? , his thesis arguing that all the societies were moving toward peace, prosperity and freedom, given that without any competition, democracy was going to be considered as the most reliable system, especially after the manifestation of what both fascism and Stalinism were capable of. ?Democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time? . Therefore, except for some regional issues, the world was going to remain indefinitely into a liberal democratic system with capitalism, and the entire world would live under an international order, where human rights would be stronger than the use of force, respecting the people' will. Following the Hegelian definition of History, which argues that ?Human History must therefore be seen not only as a succession of accomplishment, but more importantly as a succession of different form of consciousness? , Fukuyama wrote about ?the possibility that History might be at an end? . Indeed, without any changes, can we actually say that History continues?

[...] Indeed, the optimistic vision of a unique world democratic system has been strongly turned into a utopian idea by the first criminal terrorist act in New York, the 9th of September 2001. It symbolised the emergence of a new ideology, based on Islamic fundamental values, which reject the western model. To some extent, this new element might have proven Fukuyama's thesis incorrect. Recent events have shown that History continues. Eric Hobsbawm even refutes completely Fukuyama's thesis: only completely certain generalization about History is that, so long as there is a human race, it will go . Some historians, such as Alexis de Tocqueville, argued that History repeats itself over and over. [...]


[...] Without excusing Hitler, the Third Reich and the national socialism of their criminal responsibility, it is obvious that it resulted from the Great War, mainly from an unfair Versailles Treaty, the as it was called by the German leaders after the war. Versailles settlement could not possibly be the basis of a stable peace. It was doomed from the start, and another war was therefore practically certain? We might say that History is made of different periods. Each one is different from the last one, even though there are similarities. [...]

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