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Moral and Overman - Study based on: Twilight of the Idols, or How to Philosophize with a Hammer By Friedrich Nietzsche

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Use of the term overman.
  3. Reference to democracy as the incarnation of the Christian virtues.
  4. Nietzsche's criticism of Christian morals and all morals that tend to enslave man.
  5. What Nietzsche values so much.
  6. Constraining people to live respecting rules they did not choose.
  7. Conclusion.

?There are more idols than realities in the world. [?] This time it is not contemporary idols but eternal idols that are being touched here with the hammer as if with a turning fork?. This ?revaluation of all values?, an expression that Nietzsche would use numerous times in his oeuvre, enables him to present his personal conception of what ?true? morality could be. Doing so, he also gives an insight into his perception of what could be a superior life, a life in which man would not be bound to any moral, but in which he could express himself freely and then realize his potential. But this superior way of living can only be achieved by the overman that Nietzsche characterizes in Ecce Homo as: ?A type that has turned out supremely well, in antithesis to ?modern? men, to ?good men?, to Christians and other nihilist.? Thus, Nietzsche defines the overman regarding to the ones who represent the ?wrong? morality he loathes (i.e. any morals that tend to enslave men or at least weaken them).

[...] The genius his works, in his deeds- is necessarily z squanderer: his greatness lies in his expenditure [ ] People call this ?self-sacrifice'; they praise his ?heroism', his indifference towards his own well-being, his devotion to an idea, a great cause, a fatherland: all of these are misunderstandings [ ] But because we owe a great deal to such explosives, we have given them a great deal in return, too, for example a kind of higher morality For that is how humanity expresses its gratitude: it misunderstands its benefactors.-?[31] ?Throughout the ages the wisest of men have passed the same judgment on life: it is no good From this statement with which Nietzsche starts Twilight of the Idols (it comes just after the ?Maxims and and the critic which follows and introduces the notion of décadence and of declining types, we can already guess that the idea of life that the philosopher will present us is probably not a happy one. [...]


[...] - This excerpt proves that Nietzsche was not a antichristian who hated Church just because of its existence, but someone whose core values were despised, said as being evil principles by this Church and whom for these reasons criticized it, as he criticized error which lays in [Socrates'] belief in ?rationality at all costs?.[17] What Nietzsche values so much is the fact to live its life to the fullest, without regards to what you are supposed to do. The world is how it is, a world of contingencies on which you can not have any control and actually, to speak about the value of such and such things in the world does not really make sense. [...]


[...] almost every morality which has hitherto been taught, revered, and preached, turns on the contrary precisely against the vital instincts- it is at times secret, at times loud and brazen in condemning these instincts.[ ] The saint, in whom God is well pleased, is the ideal castrato Life ends where the ?kingdom of God' begins Reading this one might consider that Nietzsche is just the most famous of Anti-Christian philosophers, the one famous for having written The Antichrist (first planned to be published as the first book in a four ?volumes work entitled Revaluation of All Values?, which would have included Twilight of the Idols), a text he concludes with a against Christianity' claiming: ?Deadly war on the vice: the vice is Christianity?[13]. [...]

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