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Essay on the national liberation struggle in mozambique

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  1. Introduction
  2. The rise of nationalism in Mozambique
    1. From the colonization to the Portugal of Salazar
    2. The creation of FRELIMO
  3. The place of socialist discourses within the Mozambican nationalist discourse
    1. FRELIMO's difficulties to conceptualize its revendications
    2. The victory of FRELIMO over others nationalist parties
  4. The significance of Marxist theories within the Mozambican nationalist movement
    1. The long way to reach and adopt Marxists theories
    2. Mozambique: A unique case of nationalism within Africa
  5. Conclusion
  6. Bibliography

Mozambique is, in the early 20th century, a very heterogeneous country. Without any linguistic, cultural or ethnic harmony, the only point that is common all over this southern African country turns out to be the Portuguese colonial power. However, after an intense liberation struggle, Mozambique became independent in June of 1975; the processes of gaining independence has been induced by, as well as has induced, nationalist movements in this diverse country. Therefore, what central aspects constitute the Mozambican nationalist movements? What is the historical background on which they are based? Moreover, what impact could the socialist discourse have had on the nationalist movements? My analysis will attempt to show that if the Mozambican nationalist movement appears as an isolated case within African decolonization it is due to the fact that it draws heavily from Socialist-Marxist discourses deeply eager to create a ?new society?.

[...] Mozambique thus constitutes an isolated case in African nationalism insofar as its nationalism has not been dominated by a black nationalism relying on the sacrosanct African roots. Since 1968, the purpose of the nationalist movement was to create a society? shaped by the alliance between workers and peasants in which the exploitation of people by people was prohibited. Therefore, it was of a deep importance for FRELIMO to fight against the old ideas such as female or the youth inferiority. [...]

[...] This way, he tried to enhance the Portuguese economic investments in Mozambique by relying on capitalist agriculture, among other things. These strategies have notably led to the augmentation of the white population in Mozambique (coming from Portugal), as well as an increase of black workers within the agricultural sector held by white people. Clearly, and especially after the Second World War, the impact of the colonial power was more visible among the local populations, as the gap between the privileges of the Portuguese and of the locals widened. [...]

[...] According to Barry Munslow, FRELIMO's platform for creating unity was quite simple: opposition to colonialism and demand for national independence ( ) The first Congress laid down only the broadest outline of an economic policy for an independent Mozambique namely, the ending of all colonial and foreign economic domination[8]. At its inception, FRELIMO's nationalist discourses were less defined. Considering Nairn's theories of nationalism, these guidelines may correspond to what the author called uneven development[9]. For Nairn, nationalism is nothing but a characteristic of historical development. [...]

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