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The Clash Of Civilization Samuel Phillips Huntington

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The clash of civilizations.
    1. A new phase for world politics: The prophesy of clash.
    2. A new conflict scheme: The west threatened.
  3. A controversial theory: The main critics.
    1. A world made of civilization?
    2. An apocalyptical point of view.
  4. Conclusion.
  5. Bibliography.

Sixteen years ago Gorbatchev announced on television that he resigned as the President of the USSR, the Soviet flag was lowered over the Kremlin and on December 26th 1991, the Supreme Soviet Court recognized the extinction of the Soviet Union: the USSR was no more. After more than fifty years of an ideological conflict between the East and the West, after a harsh struggle between communism and liberalism, the post Cold War world was searching for a new prism to view international relations. The first influential answer was given by Francis Fukuyama in his book, The End of History and the Last Man, published in 1992. According to him, liberal democracy is a universally acceptable concept which has finally overcome all other ideologies and that the world is now going to embrace it. He so assesses the end of history seen as a series of confrontations between ideologies. Two years later as a reaction to this thesis, the Harvard political scientist, Samuel Phillips Huntington, published in Foreign Affairs the article The Clash Of Civilizations adapted into a book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order in 1996.

[...] According to his prophesy, the clash of civilization will take place at two levels. At the micro-level groups along a fault line between two civilizations will struggle over the control of a territory. At the macro-level, states from different civilizations will fight to control international institution and to expand their military and economical power and their particular values. When a country of one civilization will be involved in a conflict with another civilization country, it will turn into an inter civilizations conflict. [...]

[...] The fault line between the West and the Islamic civilization has been a bloody area of wars for years. Tensions between Arabs and the West that are all the more ?unlikely to decline?[11] since the upward demography in Arab countries has led to an increasing immigration to the West and to the development of racism. On the northern borders of Islam the slaughters in former Yugoslavia make Huntington says that fault lines between civilizations not only are lines of differences these are also lines bloody conflict?[12]. [...]

[...] The Huntington second recommendation in the short term is to try to limit the strength of the other side: to try to moderate his military expansion, to promote involvement of non Westerns countries in internationals institutions lead by the West and to exploit differences and conflicts between Confucian and Islamic states. Concerning the West's long term strategy it should adapt to a new situation where non Western civilizations will succeed in becoming modern and powerful without losing their particular identities and traditions. [...]

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