Can there be an equitable sharing of energy resources?
- What is the greenhouse effect?
- The determining factors
- The heat wave in summers, is it actually due to the greenhouse effect?
- Will this phenomenon happen again?
In this document we will firstly recall the main sources of energy. We have the fossil fuels like coal, oil or gas, then renewable energy sources like water, wood, wind and oceans, and finally nuclear energy. We focus here particularly on fossil fuels, because those energy resources are unevenly distributed which leads to important geopolitical issues. The world oil production in 2005 was 1,137 billion barrels, of which OPEC produced 891 billion barrels. This means the rest of the world produced only 246 billion barrels. In 2003 the Middle East was the beneficiary of 878,000 tons, CIS 338 000 tons, while for example the Asia-Oceania region had a deficit of 673,000 tons and Europe 462 000 tons. Regarding gas, OPEC has 49% of the resources and the CIS 32.2% of resources while Europe has only 3.5% and Asia 4%. Gas reserves are highly concentrated, with three countries having more than half of them. Indeed Russia, Iran and Qatar hold respectively 26, 15 and 14% of the total resources. Regarding coal, the distribution is less unequal than other fossil fuels. North America possesses 26%, CIS 24%, Asia 15% Australia 8%, and Europe 5 %.