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Ground preparation in afforestation

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Clearing.
  3. Land reclamation.
  4. Compaction.
  5. Cultivation.
  6. Disking.
  7. Ripping.
  8. Mound plowing.
  9. Drainage.
  10. Water harvesting.
  11. Conclusion.

Ground preparation is de?ned as the set of preliminary operations on soil that are required for effective establishment of tree seedlings. The main objective of ground preparation is to assure access to nutrients, air, and water for the seedlings to be planted. Ground preparation is more focused in soil treatment for plant establishment, considering the simple meaning of ground as ?solid surface of the earth' or ?the upper soil.' Site preparation may be understood as a wider concept referring to a modi?cation of the surrounding environment for plant establishment. In this sense, site preparation may include operations prior to ground preparation. Thus, site preparation includes clearing, soil cultivation, and also protection operations, such as management of pre-existing vegetation especially weeds, fencing and other animal control systems, protection of plants against frost and wind, etc.

[...] Subsoil plows are designed to provide full ground preparation treatment in hilly areas worldwide. Subsoil plows are designed for areas where the dozers available are lower in horsepower. More maneuver-able than a heavy trailing unit, subsoil plows are very rugged machines designed for use with 225?350HP dozers. The design may include a heavy-duty coulter and swept- back tine, and a choice of two or four disks. Subsoil plows may have the ripper shank and the disk body both in the swiveling frame, for high maneuver- ability on sloping ground. [...]

[...] Water harvesting should gain massive adoption in the near future because of the excellent results obtained in the afforestation of areas with rainfall as low as 80mm year. Most harvesting systems are designed for ?at areas. Nevertheless, higher steep slopes also may be treated with the systems for water collection. There are many water harvesting systems that can be applied for improving forest plantations. For example, microcatchments or ?negarims,' contour bunds, contour stone bunds, semicircular bunds, individual terraces, ?limans,' ?kasukas,' permeable rock dams, subsurface dams, and others. [...]

[...] Water harvesting systems are ground preparation systems with a high cost and a considerable amount of ground disturbance. Nevertheless, water harvesting systems can make feasible afforestation in dry zones, achieving good success in tree growth. As an example, Table 3 shows the earthworks required for three of the most popular water harvesting systems. Water harvesting systems should be considered as soil and water conservation systems, because besides harvesting water for the trees, they simultaneously conserve soil. Dimensions of water harvesting systems are based on the catchment area size required to provide an additional supply of rainfall. [...]

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