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Preparation of biodiesel by Jatropha seeds

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  1. Introduction
  2. Potential for tea companies
  3. Review of literature
    1. Biodiesel
    2. Technical feasibility
    3. Sources of bio-diesel
    4. Advantages of jatropha
    5. Agencies and institutes working in the field of bio-diesel
  4. Material and methods
    1. Source of biodiesel
    2. Efficiency and economic arguments
    3. Jatropha curcas
  5. Steps in the process
  6. Detailed procedure for production of bio-diesel
  7. Conclusion
  8. Current usages of bio-diesel / trials and testing of bio-diesel
  9. Bibliography

Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils (edible or non- edible oil) and animal fats. These natural oils and fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when rea w striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called "Bio-diesel". As India is deficient in edible oils, non-edible oil may be material of choice for producing bio diesel . For this purpose Jatropha curcas considered as most potential source for it. Bio diesel is produced by transesterification of oil obtains from the plant.

Jatropha Curcas has been identified for India as the most suitable Tree Borne Oilseed (TBO) for production of bio-diesel both in view of the non-edible oil available from it and its presence throughout the country. The capacity of Jatropha Curcas to rehabilitate degraded or dry lands, from which the poor mostly derive their sustenance, by improving land's water retention capacity, makes it additionally suitable for up-gradation of land resources. Presently, in some Indian villages, farmers are extracting oil from Jatropha and after settling and decanting it they are mixing the filtered oil with diesel fuel. Although, so far the farmers have not observed any damage to their machinery, yet this remains to be tested and PCRA is working on it. The fact remains that this oil needs to be converted to bio-diesel through a chemical reaction - trans-esterification. This reaction is relatively simple and does not require any exotic material. IOC (R&D) has been using a laboratory scale plant of 100 kg/day capacity for trans-esterification; designing of larger capacity plants is in the offing. These large plants are useful for centralized production of bio-diesel.

[...] Production Biodiesel production is the process of making biodiesel, an liquid fuel source largely compatible with petroleum based diesel fuel. The following steps can be performed in a small, home based biodiesel processor, or in large industrial facilities. The process is similar in either case. Contents 1. Steps in the process 2. Production methods 3. Oil preparation 4. Reaction 5. Base catalysed Mechanism 6. Process Steps in the process The most common steps are: 1. Preparation: cleaning/heating biolipid (e.g. WVO). [...]

[...] Most of the poisonous compounds common to diesel exhaust are reduced by 75 to 85 percent by using biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel is also easier on the lung because it reduces the emission of the types of particulate matter that cause asthma and other lung disorders by about 47 percent. Additionally biodiesel make less soot. Studies have shown that biodiesel reduces the total amount of particulate matter soot in bus tailpipe exhaust by Soot is the heavy black smoke portion of the petroleum diesel fuel exhaust that consists of 100% carbon. [...]

[...] The direct source of the energy content of biodiesel is solar energy captured by plants during photosynthesis. When straw was left in the field, biodiesel production was strongly energy positive, yielding 1 GJ biodiesel for every 0.561 GJ of energy input yield/cost ratio of 1.78 When straw was burned as fuel and oilseed rapemeal was used as a fertilizer, the yield/cost ratio for biodiesel production was even better ( 3.71 In other words, for every unit of energy input to produce biodiesel, the output was 3.71 units (the difference of 2.71 units would be from solar energy). [...]

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