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Deregulation of the "European Sky"

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  1. Introduction
  2. The Mosaic of identities
    1. Punjabi
    2. The Sindhis
    3. Mohajirs
    4. Pathan and Baluchi minorities
    5. Kashmiris
  3. The political construction of national identity
    1. The notion of national identity
    2. Pakistani Muslim identity or identities ?
    3. Language:Unifying or divisive ?
    4. Foreign policy and national identity
  4. Conclusion

A symbol of the free movement of goods and people inside and outside of the States, airlines introduced the paradox of being an activity under the tight control of governments. Placing companies originally in the hands of states, flight rights and traffic were all sources of income from the exercise of state sovereignty on airspaces as were professions and air traffic rules of flight framed by national and international bodies. Indeed, airline like rail or sea, is an expression of state sovereignty. Applied to the first dimension, the territorial sovereignty of the State over the airspace above her land territory and territorial sea is, noted by Daniel Bardonnet in the preface of a book of Ki-Gab Park on the protection air sovereignty that was published in 1991. An established principle of customary international law is enshrined in the Chicago Convention of 1944 and the International Court of Justice in 1986 in the famous case of military and paramilitary activities in Nicaragua. But in the twenty-first century with the construction community, air sovereignty is caught in a double dynamic. On one hand the powers within the airspace allow the public to ensure sovereignty, not only above its ground but also to ensure the safety of aviation activity taken in its broadest sense. On the other, the economic exploitation of this dimension, which is responsible for regulating air navigation built on the rubble of two world wars, is entangled in the logic of the principle of freedom and its corollary, economic liberalism, contained in the Chicago Convention.

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