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A Nordic identity in the European security structure?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The security context of nordic countries.
    1. Historical overview: From neutrality to non-alignment.
    2. Consequences of the end of the cold war for Nordic security context.
    3. Geopolitical context: Russia and the United States.
  3. Nordic perspective on cfsp as regards nato weu and the EU.
    1. Comparative analysis of Nordic involvement in 'the security triangle'.
    2. Finland and Sweden regarding CFSP.
    3. Finland and Sweden regarding NATO and WEU.
    4. Denmark.
    5. Common achievements.
  4. A Nordic influence in the CFSP.
    1. The realist theories: Influence in term of absence and presence.
    2. Possibilities of Nordic influence in institutional development and policy making.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Literature.
    1. Reports of the programme on the Northern Dimension.
    2. Websites.

The 3rd and 4th December 1998, the President of French Republic Jacques Chirac and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair met in Saint Malo. Both maintained the necessity to give Europe the ability of autonomous action concerning security and defence. This statement comes within the framework of the development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union during the 1990s. It also shows the building process of a CFSP (common Foreign and security policy) is getting more and more pragmatic. Indeed, the institutional framework for a European voice in international affairs now exists. The EU as an independent actor that stands ready to defend its security interests at the European and global level will have a significant impact upon cooperative security structures at the regional level and beyond. It will alter relations between states as well as international bodies. It will create new security and organizational patterns and somewhat blur the borders between member states.

[...] Indeed, when assessing the future status of the Nordic subregion in the sphere of security and defence, we can say that this European region is becoming a more ?normal' one. The days when the Nordic countries could develop a political identity by being different from the rest of Europe are gone. Instead, developments have shown that during the last 10 years the Nordic countries have become participants in the main European security discourses. As noted earlier, the traditional factors which were characteristic for the Nordic countries, and which were among those elements which created the ?Nordic political space', are becoming relatively less significant. [...]

[...] In other words, the Nordic area (or ?Norden'), especially Finland and Sweden, developed a specific political identity by being different from the rest of the bipolar European security order. In contrast to the rest of the system, the Nordic countries tried to pursue a foreign policy orientation which represented a modification of the confrontation, essentially by limiting Soviet involvement in Finland. After the end of the Cold War, this special form of identity was irrelevant. Instead, during the 1990s the Nordic countries became involved in the great European security discourses, the most important one of which revolved around the concept of cooperative security. [...]

[...] Accordingly, in a report issued by the Finnish Council of State in March 1997 with the title ?European Security and Finnish Defence' it is stressed that the ?Union is founded on the concept that its own and its member states' security are inseparable. Its influence on security depends on its economic strength and political cohesion. Economic and monetary union will deepen EU integration and strengthen security based on common responsibility'. The link between the Finnish military forces and the EU integration process is also expressed in a very clear way when the report says that [Finland's] credible independent defence capability supports the collective security of the Union and its members. [...]

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