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The EU and the disintegration of Yugoslavia

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  1. Introduction.
  2. On the brink of civil war: Misunderstanding, incomprehension and division.
    1. Yugoslavia: An explosive situation.
    2. The West: Division of the European Union
    3. Improbable attempts at maintaining peace in Yugoslavia.
  3. The EU between idleness and unsuccessful attempts in Yugoslavia.
    1. Case studies: Slovenia and Croatia, two very different situations.
    2. From Brussels: Dilemma and incapacity to stop the war.
    3. On the field: The insufficiency of some success.
  4. Bibliography.

In order to better understand the disintegration of Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990s, it is interesting to recall that Yugoslavia was first created in 1918, and was dismembered firstly during World War Second. Then, it has been dismembered once more with the collapse of the USSR at the end of the 1980s, causing the above-mentioned disintegration. Moreover, between its creation in 1918 and its final disintegration, the Yugoslavian State has been confronted to highly different regional, religious and ethnic composition, which provoked the issues of the fragility and the legitimacy of it, creating instability and great hostility from some people such as Goebbels during the interwar period, who said that Yugoslavia was ?a questionable patchwork of states?.

[...] II/ The EU between idleness and unsuccessful attempts in Yugoslavia Case Studies: Slovenia and Croatia, two very different situations As we have seen previously, Slovenia and Croatia decided to secede from the Yugoslav Federation in June This decision opened a completely new phase in the Yugoslav crisis, but there is to underline the disparity of the situation in these two countries, as well as the difference of success of the European Community reaction. On the one hand, in Slovenia, the war between Slovene forces and the JNA was fierce but also very brief, causing a dozen killed within the Slovenian forces and thirty-seven within JNA ones. [...]

[...] But because of the lack of common European policy and strategy, these individual successes were insufficient to permit to stop the Yugoslavian wars particularly in Croatia and in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Finally, the United States had been the ones to intervene to put an end to these conflicts, accomplishing what the European Union had been incapable of. To conclude, we can observe that the disintegration of Yugoslavia had done the European Union much harm. In fact, this crisis had revealed publicly and widely its incapacity to implement a common strategy and policy. So we can say that the disintegration of Yugoslavia called in question the efficiency and even [...]

[...] we can ask ourselves about the action of the EU during the disintegration of Yugoslavia? Has the EU been efficient in its response and reaction, before and during the different wars? And what about after? To answer these questions, we will first examine the situation on the brink of the civil war in Yugoslavia, in this country but also in the member states of the EU. Then, we will study the EU actions during the Yugoslavian war, stressing on the fact that its attempts had been mostly unsuccessful. [...]

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