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What are the main obstacles in the establishment of a European citizenship?

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  1. Introduction
  2. A potential economic and ecological importance
    1. A possible flexibility of the treaty for a future operation?
    2. Climatic upheaval with multiple outcomes
  3. Towards recognition of indigenous peoples
  4. The Arctic: a military zone that is highly strategic
  5. Conclusion

The Maastricht Treaty or the Treaty on European Union, is the treaty establishing the European Union. Section B sets out the objectives of the Union. It states that "The Union's objective, the introduction of a citizenship of the Union." In Article 8, there is the definition of European citizenship, "a citizen of the Union is any person holding the nationality of a Member State," "The citizens of the Union shall enjoy the rights and be subject to duties imposed by this Treaty. "European citizenship is a stated objective of the European Union.

However, the citizen is not the only one who has rights. It is also defined by the recognition of a shared identity. Therefore one can consider that there are two dimensions of citizenship. The first is the so-called "citizenship statue" is on the legal status, that is to say, the rights and duties. The second dimension is "citizenship identity": it means a sense of belonging to a political community.

On European citizenship, these two dimensions are still under construction. Indeed, the question "do you ever happen to think of yourself as a citizen of Europe? "38% of French people answered "often ", 62% answered" not very often? or ?never? (the figures are comparable as an average in other European countries). Using the two dimensions of citizenship, one can ask what are the factors that prevent its implementation.

This document will therefore, in the first part, try to update the obstacles to the size statues of citizenship. In the second part, it will show which ones relate to the identity dimension.

A citizen is therefor defined, first, by the rights to which he is the beneficiary. However, any individual who is a citizen of a Member State of the European Union has rights related to the fact that it is "European". These rights are enshrined in Article 8 of the Maastricht Treaty. These include the free movement of persons, freedom of residence and their freedom to work in the European Union. These include the right to petition the European Parliament, the right of complaint against the institutions of the European Union to the European Ombudsman, the right of a citizen to enjoy the diplomatic protection of a Member State other than his own .

On the other hand, at the EU summit in Nice in December 2000, there was the approval of a Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Of course, there are also the rights of political participation since 1979, wherein Europeans elect their representatives in the European Parliament by universal suffrage. Thus the Europeans have rights. However, it is not enough that these rights exist to create their citizenship. Indeed, they must already be known and used. But this is not really the case, especially regarding the rights most directly related to citizenship, that is to say the rights of political participation. Indeed, a majority of the French people think they do not have the right to vote in European Parliament elections. Only 8% of Europeans know what the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

Tags: European Union; European citizenship; Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union; obstacles in establishing European citizenship

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