An essay on Globalization
- From exchanges to standardization
- The actors of Globalization and how do enterprises spread over?
- ''War had speeded up cultural exchange'' : the historical and cultural causes
- Is uniformity only based on the American model?
- ''The most local global brand''
- Globalization has its limits
- Are all the cultures integrated to Globalization?
- Civilizations are too developed, different and mixed up to be encompassed
As early as 1967, in his book The Medium is the Massage, Canadian sociologist and philosopher Marshall MacLuhan described the world anchoring itself in a process of exchanges and interdependences melting into networks, as a 'Global Village'. This phrase gave birth to the concept of globalization which describes how the world will progressively share a global culture, a culture brought to consistency. This concept is more based on cultural issues in all its aspects (languages, education, fashion, tastes, human flows) than on economic fields. However, the protectionism of the different cultures and the opposition which globalization has been giving rise to, makes us question the legitimacy of Mac Luhan's assumption. Thus, can we think that cultures all over the world are on a one-way-trip to globalization, and is this globalization synonymous with Americanization? To answer these questions, the first document, published on Coca Cola Company's website, summarizes the American firm's trip to worldwide fame, describing the steps of its spreading all over the world. This success in introducing the drink abroad reminds us of American Disney's, shown in document three and four which exposes Disney's consumers' appeal for the American brand which tries to settle in Southern Asia as it is explained in the fourth document. Nevertheless, the last document, written by Eric Pfanner in the International Herald Tribune on the 13th of June 2005 issue, lets us think that this spreading is not entirely completed since some contestations interrupted it. Thus, it seems to highlight some limits of American fashion overseas.