An overview on Iran
- Main conflicts in Africa resulted from the fragility of states following the decolonization process and re-appropriating modes of administrations of former colonial powers
- The new states were unable to regulate the tensions inherent due to the presence of many ethnic and religious disparities
- The fragility of the state was born as a result of structural inability to exercise its sovereignty and control territory
- Resources were the coveted constants that states failed to master
- The failure of the state space opened to the presence of many destabilizing transnational actors in pursuit for interests
- Conflicts in Africa have also exacerbated by geopolitical and strategic stakes of the great powers in Africa seeking to maximize their power
- Africa was a breeding ground for indirect confrontation of the great powers
- The post-Cold War saw the emergence of new types of low intensity conflicts
Iran has a strategic position located at the center of the Middle East. Indeed, it is surrounded by many countries: Turkey in the north, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iraq to the West and Turkmenistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan to east. Iran is also a major world power in several respects: it has the 29th largest economy, is the third largest oil producer and second largest exporter of OPEC and finally holds the second largest reserve of natural gas.
However, Iran remains a highly unstable country, living off on its oil wells and living in disrespect of fundamental freedoms. Moreover, Iran has always been strong and influential in international relations; however, the Islamic revolution of 1979 marked a radical change in its foreign policy. Then it remains here to ask how Iran went from a monarchy then allied with the United States to form an Islamic state in the pursuit of regional influence.
Iran was a strategic country for the United States, first to contain Soviet influence in the region, and also for its oil resources. Thus, from World War II, Americans have acted to ensure their interests in the country. They were introduced to Iran by the British, who, with the Soviet Union occupied Iranian territory since 1941. Gradually, the Americans took the reins of the country, first by controlling the formation of the army and state finances, and by interfering in Iranian politics, to ensure the benevolence of the rulers towards American policies.
Thus in 1953, the United States and Britain undertook the operation Ajax, with the complicity of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to remove the Prime Minister, Mohammad Mossadegh.
Tags: Iran, OPEC, Islamic revolution, strategic country, World War II, Iranian politics