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Competition for natural resources and energy

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  1. Introduction
  2. The Mosaic of identities
    1. Punjabi
    2. The Sindhis
    3. Mohajirs
    4. Pathan and Baluchi minorities
    5. Kashmiris
  3. The political construction of national identity
    1. The notion of national identity
    2. Pakistani Muslim identity or identities ?
    3. Language:Unifying or divisive ?
    4. Foreign policy and national identity
  4. Conclusion

Between increased consumption due to economic reasons and resource scarcity, competition for natural resources is increasing. The competition for the possession and use of natural resources has always been a component of the confrontation between states. It is possible to establish a typology of natural resources- permanent ones such as wind, solar or tidal power, renewable ones such as biomass, wood and water and non-renewable ones such as mineral resources and fossil fuels.

The issue raises three major debates: that of access and consumption of natural resources, that of the competition between of markets and on questions of energy policies, and finally that of sustainable development. What then is the appropriate management of natural resources and energy?

It is first necessary to define the different natural resources and energy. Natural resources refer mainly to the agricultural and mining resources, but also with wood, water and arable land. Energy resources include so-called renewable energies, but also nuclear and hydrocarbons. These two categories are not completely separated (eg coal). Almost all of these resources are primarily raw materials and will later be transformed. The competition goes beyond their mere possession and extraction and is also for the supply and processing.

There has been over the last ten years an increase in demand for raw materials and energy (China, India), resulting in price increases of raw materials, to break new records and many market liberalization, the dismantling of restrictions on the import and export and removal of export subsidies, with many exceptions.

Tags: natural resources and energy; appropriate management; resource scarcity; increase in demand; competition for energy and natural resources;

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