East Asia -A zone of growing power
- Progressive liberalization and planned trade (GATT 1947)
- 'The most favored nation' clause
- National Treatment
- Condemnation of quantitative restrictions on trade
- Towards an increasing institutionalization (the Marrakesh Accords, 1994)
- Regulatory role of the DSB
- Clarifications to existing agreements
- New areas within the scope of the regulation of the WTO
- Social and environmental concerns
One can define East Asia as a highly urbanized zone because it includes many important cities. Nevertheless, it is noted that the majority of the Chinese population is urban. East Asia is one of the major population centers in the world. This area includes approximately 800 million people, which induces relatively high population densities comparable or superior to the European region. There is high population concentration in a small space. In fact, China's littoral concentrates 43% of its total population, and covers only 13% of its territory.
It may be mentioned that all major cities: Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul, Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong are the other criteria of single East Asia; as the main ports of the world are grouped together. Of the top 25 ports worldwide, 21 are from East Asia. The coastal port is a major feature of this zone. These port ranges are essential for economic activity thus resulting in a fairly impressive port activity. Furthermore, Japan, the 4 dragons of Asia and coastal China have higher GDP.
The development strategy used by these countries is really special. One talks about development strategy in cross waves or, more poetically, in flying geese. Basically it is a strategy initiated by Japan, which has four phases:
Import phase; Production phase; Export Phase; Phase of relocation.
The first phase is therefore an import of energy and manufactured goods. This is understandable, because after the Second World War, Japan is a true field of ruins. In effect, the country was hit on 6 and 9 August 1945 by the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thus, the first necessity to live when everything is destroyed is to import. This phase lasted for a decade or so. Moreover, the bulk of consumption is imported from the United States after reconciliation between the two countries in 1951. Japan, which, at the base, was unable to meet its needs gradually, restores its productive apparatus. A significant example is the example of Japanese car whose production was zero until 1955.
The second phase, which lasted from the mid 50's until the late 60sfor Japan, is characterized by the development of domestic production inspired by models of other developed countries. One can again cite the example of the Japanese automobile in 1967, moved up to second in the world and, in 1980, began to compete in the first place in the United States. It is here in the situation where domestic production replaces imports gradually. The success of this second phase calls for the inevitable third. In effect, once domestic demand satisfied, so that development continues, one must sell part of the production abroad.
Tags: East Asia; growing power; development strategy;