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The liberal and neo-liberal theories applied to the Kosovo crisis in 1998-1999

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The neoliberal theory: Providing a relevant explanation for why NATO intervened in Kosovo.
  3. the Kosovo crisis: A strong precedent for multilateral action, a key concept of the liberal theory.
  4. Consolidating the international law and the international Justice.
    1. International law.
    2. International justice.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Bibliography.

Kosovo is mostly known as a region in the former Yugoslavia where, in 1998 and 1999, there was growing violence between the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which sought independence from Serbia, and the Serbian army and police, which were randomly attacking the province of the indigenous Albanian population as a reprisal for KLA activities. In an effort to prevent further violence, in 1998, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) issued several ultimatums to Slobodan Milosevic, the Yugoslavian President, demanding that the Serbs stop violence towards the Kosovar Albanian population and withdrew military forces from the province. As the Serbs refused to give in, NATO intervened in Kosovo without asking the permission of the United Nation Security Council and launched an air campaign against Yugoslavia in March 1999: Operation Allied Force (OAF).

[...] Finally, the Kosovo crisis consolidated the international law and the international Justice, particularly important for liberalists' eyes International law It is true that NATO's decision to intervene in Kosovo represented a violation of international law and that it had important consequences for liberal theory, which confers a large importance to international law. As the intervention in Kosovo can be clearly considered as a breach of international law, realists could say that the liberal stress on humanitarian norms and states commitment to adhere to standards of conduct cannot be taken seriously. [...]


[...] He was arrested in April 2001 and was brought before the authorities of The Hague to be judged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the Kosovo conflict. Although Slobodan Milosevic died before the end of the trial, it was the first time that a practising head of state was accused of what are considered as the gravest crimes under international law. The Kosovo war with the institution of the ICTY therefore consolidated the international justice, particularly important in the eyes of the liberalists. [...]

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