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United Nations (UNO) and its role in the conflicts - ceasefire and imposition of peace (peacekeeping and peacemaking)

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  1. Introduction
  2. The reasons for the Irish "no"
    1. The context of the referendum
    2. The reasons for the rejection
  3. The ways out of the crisis
    1. How did the crisis happen?
    2. What to do now?

Chapter VII of the Charter gives the UN the legitimacy to conduct coercive military intervention to ensure peace and security, for which they were created. It stipulates that if the Security Council fails, by peaceful means, to prevent a situation from deteriorating, it may "undertake, through air, sea or land, any action it deems necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security "(UN Charter, Article 42). This provision opens the door to the deployment of peacekeepers in a hostile environment where they can be called upon to open fire to enforce their mandate.

The operations of UN peacekeeping have, throughout history, has faced many obstacles and challenges they have overcome for their original setting of which is to enforce a cease-fire (the peacekeeping) for a more incisive peace enforcement (with the peacemaking). Today, the United Nations interventions have nothing to do with them and respond to new challenges. Beyond peacekeeping and peacemaking, what is the new face of peacekeeping operations of the UN?

For a decade, the peace has a new face. Indeed, despite its efforts to adapt the UN is facing problems of legitimacy and efficiency with its traditional peace operations. Their challenge is replaced by anew conception of peace operations, the peace building. Although the role of the UN remains central to the extent that the OMP will continue to be generally created by a mandate from the Security Council broke its monopoly in favor of regional organizations or coalitions created at the initiative of a country that supports jointly or outside of it management of peace operations.

In spite of efforts to adapt the UN has failed to meet the challenges of the new conflicts and is facing a crisis of legitimacy and efficiency. It has witnessed a crisis of implementation of peacekeeping operations. Although the UN has a highly developed technical tool for the maintenance of peace, its implementation is often problematic and one can speak of a crisis in the implementation of the OMP, a political crisis, but also technical.

The UN peacekeeping operations and thus suffer from a crisis of confidence. Public opinion in many countries accused him of being in the hands of the larger states and powerful (not to mention the United States). This crisis of confidence has resulted in several occasions by the inaction of the Organization.

Thus in 1990, in Kuwait, despite a rapid response of the UN (including economic sanctions) against the invasion of Iraq, no peace operation has been established by the organization, it left way to a US-led coalition to which it gave permission in principle to act through a resolution 678 passed in November 1990 that "authorizes member states cooperating with the Kuwaiti government to use all the necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the region." The Secretary General of the UN at the time emphasized that on this occasion that if this war was not contrary to the Charter itself, it was not necessarily that of the UN. He put the emphasis on the failure of the organization for more control over any military action was organized.

Tags: United Nations (UNO) and its role in the conflicts - ceasefire and imposition of peace (peacekeeping and peacemaking); peacekeeping operations of the UN;

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