American and Soviet models during the Cold War
The United States was truly born after the Second World War. It was the aftermath of the Second World War that shaped the U.S into the superpower that it is. After the Second World War ended, the U.S grew economically, and beat the European nations such as France and England, in its race to progress. The European countries had, in fact, been destroyed by war. Their infrastructure had been destroyed by bombs and battles. Despite this, the United States took no pity on the war affected territories. It is through such coldness that the U.S has become a political and economic power today. As there was no damage in the U.S territory, their economy was able to buckle up without the need for reconstruction.
However, the same cannot be said about the USSR. The birth of the Soviet model dates back to the time of the creation of USSR, by Vladimir Lenin. Things however changed when Stalin came to power in 1927. USSR was seen as a totalitarian state. Stalin had absolute power and implemented many communist measures, while he served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin assuming the lead after Vladimir Lenin's death marked an abrupt and radical transformation of the Soviet society. Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy with the five year plans. The face of the Soviet Union changed deeply due to full agricultural collectivization and industrialization, which happened at "full steam". So, we can say that the Soviet model was born with the arrival of Stalin to power in 1927. The schemes that were implemented as part of the five year plans were classless, and were intended to belong to the people.
First, the constitution of the United States date from 1787 although they independent from 1776. Congress should not make laws that touches on religion, freedom of the press, of speech, freedom to assemble or to petition. The government should not touch the freedom of individuals. Slavery or involuntary servitude are prohibited except for prisoners to pay their debts. Anyone can vote at 18 years and the state cannot prevent people from doing so. No president can be elected more than two times.
The U.S. Constitution has a power held in two levels:
- At local level, the country was originally divided into 13 states (the 13 colonies). Now these states number 50. Each state constitution provides for elections to a governorship (executive) and two meetings (legislative). That is why some states have the death penalty and others do not. These institutions are competent in the field of justice, police, education
- At central level, that is to say, the power over the States, there is the federal government that is based in Washington. It is qualified in military, monetary and diplomatic matters. This government is dominated by the power of the president.
The central government consists of three sets:
- The executive is composed of the President and the Government (Cabinet). Recall that the President of the United States is elected for four years by indirect universal suffrage and cannot be elected more than two times. There are ministers (secretaries) and the secretary of state is placed just after the President in the political hierarchy.
Tags: U.S. Constitution, Vladimir Lenin, indirect universal suffrage