Assessment and future of the United Nations (UNO)
On June 26, 1945, fifty States signed the Charter of San Francisco which founded the United Nations. The preamble to the Charter, ?Us, People of the United Nations?, exposes the principles of the founders which will guide the action of the United Nations: the founders decide to link themselves to avoid at all costs the horror of two world wars which devastated humanity in less than one half-century. The respect of the basic rights of men and the control and the regulation of the use of the force are the pillars of the introduction of a perpetual peace by the international collective security.
These principles were stated in the speech of the Fourteen Points of President Wilson of January 1918, and were set up, thanks to the introduction of the Company of the Nations; they modeled the international relations of second half of the 20th century. The end of the Cold war and the fall of the USSR marked a renewal of the Organization: there was blocking due to the systematic vetoes, or almost, of the United States. The USSR prevented all important decision making processes. But the beginning of the year 1990 saw the return of triumph over multi-lateralism and established final peace between the people, and led to the introduction of a world governorship.
However, during the later years, conflicts multiplied, and various forms of civil wars, new threats and new risks appeared. Moreover, the UNO remained an organization of the main States. The United Nations are thus at a turning point in their history: they have an important assessment after 60 years, but the U.N. system undergoes a crisis of legitimacy and authority which has been accentuated since the American intervention of Iraq in 2003. It remains for the UNO to reform its operations and to redefine its role. The organization rests on the principle of a perpetual peace by the international collective security: which were the achievements made in this objective and what are the efforts taken to achieve this goal?
During 60 years of existence, the UN has maintained an ongoing dialogue between states, though not always resolved, all conflicts, regulation has often done through multinational coalitions. However, it is now at a crossroads. There has been crisis of legitimacy and efficiency that has intensified since 2003 and the beginning of the Iraq war. The United Nations experienced an effect of internal limits and failures that have been paralyzed, or at least slow down its operation.
First, the UN remains dominated by the major powers that created it. The agreement of the permanent members of the Security Council determines the effectiveness of the organization. In this world view that is behind this operation, it is the great powers that must ensure the maintenance of peace. But we saw that the UN is an instrument in the hands of states that act most often by their own national and regional interests. In this sense, the old international system has not cleared before the myth of a multilateralism that would see the end of the story and give the introduction of global governance.
Tags: Fourteen Points of President Wilson, Company of the Nations, American intervention, international collective security, Security Council