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The Geneva Convention

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  1. Introduction
  2. Presentation
  3. 1st convention
  4. 2nd convention
  5. 3rd convention
  6. 4th convention
  7. 1st protocol
  8. 2nd protocol
  9. 3rd protocol
  10. Use of emblem
  11. Conclusion
  12. Annexes
  13. Bibliography

Since the beginning of recorded history, efforts have been made to limit the behavior during war time. Moreover, there have been many attempts to codify the rules of the military conduct as well.

For example:

The Chinese warrior Sun Tzu in the 6th century BCE tried to put some limits in the way the war was conducted.

The notion of war crimes appeared for the first time in Manu's Hindi Code. It was about 200 BCE.

Sir William Wallace (a Scottish national hero) was sued for the murder of civilians during wartime in 1305

Even a book has been published in 1625 by Hugo Grotius that dealt with the humanitarian treatment of civilians: ?On the Law of War and Peace?

The first case of someone being executed for prisoners' mistreatment is the Confederate officer Henry Wirz. It took place at the Andersonville war camp in 1865. Only one of the several people involved in similar offenses has been executed but it was the beginning of the regulations about prisoners' treatment during war time

It is impossible to make an up-dated list of war crimes around the world but since the last 150 years, a real step has been accomplished in restricting the behaviors on warring parties. And it is since the last century that an international body of law has been created to police the nations of the world.

[...] The main person who has been instrumental for the ratification of the 1st Geneva Convention by the United States was the nurse Clara Barton (see in Annexes). The USA signed the 2nd Convention in 1882. The 4 different Conventions of Geneva have an identical Article 3 that extends the general coverage to non-international conflict. According to this Article ?those who put down the arms or are out of the conflict because of serious unjuries or sickness, have to be treated in a human way without discrimination based on criteria such as sex, religion, race, social status or wealth.? 2. [...]

[...] 2nd Convention It is officially called the ?Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked members of the Armed Forces at This Convention is similar to the 1st one but also covers the land along with sea. Its scope covers the members of armed forces who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked, the hospital ships and medical personnel and the civilians who accompany the armed forces. It has the same idea like that of the core idea of the Red Cross in the sense that if a soldier from armed forces is sick or wounded, he can not take an active part in the hostilities. [...]

[...] 3rd Convention The third Geneva Conventions official name is the ?Convention relative to the treatment of Prisoners of War POWs?. It consists of 143 articles that deal with the soldiers and members of armed forces, volunteer militia, including resistance movements, civilians and the armed forces that fall into enemy hands. The Convention states that these people are under the power of the enemy State and not under the troops or individuals that captured them. The Following table corresponds to Must be and Must Not be of the Prisoners of . [...]

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