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What are the main milestones in the emergence of the Palestinian problem and the Arab-Israeli conflict?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The book Critique of the Gotha Programme.
    1. Different stages of communism.
    2. Evolution of the crude communist society.
  3. Higher phase of communism.
    1. Labor as a means of life and a prime want.
    2. Enabling people to consume whatever they want.
    3. Freedom and equality.
  4. Marx's point of view.
    1. Equal and just ideal society.
    2. A just repartition.
  5. Ayn Rand's interpretation of the communist society.
  6. Views on Marx's theory.
    1. Marxists view.
    2. Rousseau criticism.
    3. Adam Smith's argument on the peoples want to be wealthy.
    4. Sean Sayers' view.
  7. Examples of societies or parts of societies functioning in a Marxist way.
    1. Hunter-gatherer societies.
    2. The Kibbutz.
  8. Conclusion.
  9. Bibliography.

?In a higher phase of communist society after labour has become not only a means of life but life's prime want only then can society inscribe on its banners: from each according to his ability to each according to his needs!? (?Critique of the Gotha Programme', p. 569). Explain and critically assess Marx's conception of communist society. In Critique of the Gotha Programme, written in 1875, Marx distinguishes different stages of communism from ?crude communism? to a ?higher phase of communism?. He defines crude communism as ?a communist society [which has not] developed on its own foundations, but on the contrary, [has] just emerg[ed] from capitalist society? . According to Marx, although it represents a more equal society than a capitalist society, inequalities still exist among people. In a crude communist society, ?the individual producer receives back from society exactly what he gives to it? , so ?the right of producer is proportional to the labour they supply? . According to Marx, this function still creates inequalities since ?one man is superior to another physically or mentally and so supplies more labour in the same time, or can labour for a longer time? . Moreover, workers have different needs with respect to their familial situation ?they can be married or not, have children or not? so if two workers give a same amount of labour, and hence receive ?an equal share in the social consumption fund, one will in fact receive more than another? . So the crude communist society ?recognizes no class differences, because everyone is only a worker like everyone else; but it tacitly recognizes unequal individual endowment? and is therefore an unequal society.

[...] She argues the moochers seem benign but are arguably more destructive than the looters, and criticizes the legal looting of governments intended to help them. In response, Marxists usually argue that if you refer to such things as food, education or medical care needs are objective and are more or less equal between individuals. Since communism eliminates private property, there is no need for people to hoard things that they do not actually need. However Marxists recognize that some people, like the elderly or the chronically sick, need more resources than they can produce. [...]


[...] In most of the societies nowadays, wealth is distributed with respect to what people gave to society: people receive different wages according to the work they did and the qualifications they have. But according to Marx, this repartition reproduces the natural inequalities between people. According to Plato, inequalities are natural and inevitable. We could then argue that only society can compensate unequal skills and abilities and put everybody on an equal footing. However, Plato uses this idea of natural inequality to justify the existence of a ruling class. [...]


[...] Marx, Capital, London : Lawrence and Wishart - Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Book chapter http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.5.v.html - ?Rousseau, desire, and the modern society? http://www.fabula.org/actualites/article3896.php - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy : article ?Karl Marx? http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/ - Sean Sayers, ?Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Historical Materialism - Evillebunny, ?Encountering communism : The theories of Karl Marx? http://www.nerdland.net/articles/articles.php?naid=15 - Huisman, Denis, Philosophie : Le guide spécial bac, Nathan - William Montgomery Brown, Episcopus in Partibus Bolshevikium et Infidelium, http://www.anglocatholicsocialism.org/episcopus.html - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy : article Rand? http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/rand.htm - Kibbutzim official site http://www.kibbutz.org.il/eng/ - Rappoport, Charles, future state's organisation?, journal ?Socialism?, June 7th http://www.marxists.org/francais/rappoport/works/1908/06/rappoport_19080607. [...]

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