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Milestones in the emergence of the Palestinian problem and the Arab-Israeli conflict

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The Jews idea of returning to the land of the Bible and their forefathers.
    1. Discrimination of Jews in Europe.
    2. Jewish settlement in Ottoman territory.
    3. The Balfour declaration.
  3. The interwar period.
    1. The British capture of Jerusalem.
    2. Zionist movement and encouragement of the Jewish immigration to Palestine.
    3. The growth of Arab population.
  4. The period of violence.
  5. The Palestinian problem to the United Nations.
    1. Hitler against the Jews.
    2. The support of the Jewish community to the British.
  6. The Arab defeat.
  7. The emergence of the Palestinians as an autonomous political force.
  8. Conclusion.
  9. Bibliography.

In January 2006, the Islamic militant group Hamas won the Palestinian Parliamentary elections, with 42.2% of the votes. The election in Palestine of a group that remains committed to an armed struggle, the destruction of Israel and retaliatory attacks on Israeli civilians shows that nearly sixty years after the creation of the State of Israel, the co-existence of Palestine and Israel is still problematic in the Middle East. When did this Palestinian problem start to emerge and how did it become a more general conflict between Arabs and Israel? According to Cleveland, in the 1880s, ?Zionist claims to the same territory inhabited by Palestinian Arabs lay at the root of the conflict over Palestine? . How did these conflicting claims over a territory cause the emergence of an Arab-Israeli conflict that spanned more than one century of political tensions and open hostilities with ?Jordan, Egypt and Syria, whatever their mutual animosities, aligned against Israel? ? How did this conflict generate five wars and create over 1 million refugees? How did it produce misunderstanding and bitterness among the various parties involved and repercussions throughout the Middle East and the world at large? To answer these questions, we are going to study the main milestones in the emergence of the Palestinian problem and the Arab-Israeli conflict. We will explain the implications of the 1979 peace treaty between Egypt and Israel and why it can be considered at the end of the ?emergence of the Palestinian problem and the Arab-Israeli conflict?.

[...] Britain -even if it had agreed in 1954 to give up its Suez Canal base- and France thought this nationalization was undermining the West's position throughout the Arab world and collaborated secretly with Israel to attack Egypt, creating the second Arab-Israeli war, known as the Suez war. Israel's goal was destroy the fidaiyin bases in Gaza and to break the Egyptian blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba?[43]. On October Israel attacked Egypt and France and Britain intervened on the 31. [...]

[...] ?However gave the Palestinian movement room for manoeuvre: the regular Arab armies were discredited, while political mobilisation grew in the newly occupied West Bank and in the refugee camps of Jordan and Lebanon. The new leader of PLO, Yasser Arafat[61] . used his own political organisation al-Fatah[62] . to represent an independent Palestinian voice?[63]. This organisation carried out guerrilla actions in areas under Israeli control, causing some casualties and property damage within Israel. the aftermath of 1967 war Arab states worked to recover lands taken by Israel in that conflict by both military and diplomatic means?[64] : Egypt undertook a war of attribution from 1968-70, combating Israel across the Suez Canal. [...]

[...] * In this essay, we consider this peace treaty as putting an end to the emergence of the Arab-Israeli conflict, since it shaped the Arab-Israeli conflict in similar terms as it exists today: the conflict is geographically more centralized on Palestine, without the Sinai, since after 1979 there was no more claim over this region. Moreover, in 1979, the conflict becomes more a conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Israel, like it is nowadays, since the coalition of Arab states against Israel no longer exists: in 1979, the conclusion of a separate peace between Egypt and Israel was seen as an outrage by other Arab states, leading to Egypt's being ostracised from the Arab-League. [...]

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