Africa of the inequalities: by Cogneau Denis
- On the division of powers
- The allocation of powers by States
- The exclusive competence of the Community
- Collaboration between the EU and member states
- Skills linking the EU and EU Member States
- A more active role for national parliaments
Cogneau Denis, director of research at IRD (Research Institute for Development), is a teacher at the EHESS. He focuses his research on themes such as inequality, social justice, education and health. He offers a schematic view of the African situation in terms of inequalities, and their historical origins. Africa combines international and intra-national inequalities partly due to its colonial history, which has reinforced existing inequalities between coastal regions and the rest of the territory.
There was an already unequal period before the colonizers arrived, and they only accentuated it. The territory is vast, and they could not control any territory and needed local support. African elites are as responsible as the colonies for the exploitation of African resources. They returned the game of claiming the Western burden of the white man with a mission of civilization to engineer the looting of Africa.
Cogneau Denis remains relatively neutral in his work, and he expressed figures without actually being indignant with real consequences that colonization resulted. It helps to avoid influencing the player to have only tables of figures or historical findings and the evidence proved convincing, it is legitimate to take a minimum position.
"The Indirect Rule" was the British colonial regime in which power was entrusted to local leaders in exchange for their support. Loyalty (purchase) of these leaders allowed for not placing too much military force to control the large territory. Decentralization of authority between the mainland and the African elite was necessary to control the vast territories that were colonized. There is a first source of inequality since the settlers have chosen to transfer their authority to local leaders by holding them as superior.
Take the example of Rwanda that the author did not mention (rather taking as a source of analysis on Ghana or Cote d'Ivoire), the Belgians decided to grant power to the Tutsi because they were more likely according to them to manage the administration of power (skills verified before colonization). They even set up a map of racial identity in 1936 which specified race, and disseminated the idea that the Tutsi were a superior race. Here one will find the beginnings of the origin of the genocide that is not an ethnic conflict but a conflict of socio-economic development.
Tags: Africa; Cogneau Denis; African situation; inequalities present in the African continent;