- The themes highlighted
- Attitudes of the characters and mafia
- Sequence analysis
Etymologically, the word "anarchy" comes from the Greek ?anarkhia'. "Literally," anarchy " means " without command."
Anarchism is a political philosophy that has developed since the nineteenth century. Anarchy is a concept that favors the restoration of the individual's liberty (political freedom, economic freedom through individual and social freedom) in society, while rejecting authority of any kind. It advocates the abolition of the State. Anarchy has evolved since the nineteenth century, its means of action has changed and many parallel movements have developed, but this concept, although it has had slightly different characteristics in different movements, has not ceased.
The birth of anarchism:
A. Precursors of anarchism
There are precursors of anarchy, we can cite, for example, Epicurus. Many famous people such as François Rabelais and Voltaire Fourier are considered to be precursors of anarchism because of their libertarian ideas.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon is considered to be the father of anarchism, although he was primarily an economist. In 1840, he proclaimed himself to be an anarchist and was the first to declare himself an anarchist. Proudhon calls the form of anarchism that he created ?mutualist anarchism'. He wanted a society that was based on the exchange between independent artisans and peasants.
After Proudhon, theorists such as Bakunin and Kropotkin, Stirner(from Russia), Elisha Reclus, Jean Grave and Georges Sorel(from France and Germany) emerged. Their concept of anarchism was no longer on the main stage but still remained active.
The most famous woman anarchist was Louise Michel. She was among one of the first women anarchists. She was born on May 29 in 1830 in Haute-Marne and was the illegitimate daughter of a Lord and a servant. Louise Michel then became a teacher and would later be recognized as a militant anarchist who was important because she was the first to hoist the black flag.
B. The birth of a challenge to capitalism: the manifesto of the Communist Party
Workers and entrepreneurs lived in an environment of insecurity, whistle blowing capitalism and growing liberalism. It was in this atmosphere that Socialism appeared as an ideology that advocated a reorganization of society around Saint-Simon and Fourier. They dreamt of an ideal society that was based on full equality between the members of society and this is what is called utopian socialism. Socialist thought as we know it today, was born in 1848 thanks to the manifesto of the Communist Party that was written by the German philosopher Karl Marx and his friend and patron, Friedrich Engels.
In 1864 socialists were divided into three streams
- Socialism, a more moderate power that aimed at changing society to establish equality through political means.
- Communism ? that wanted to create a egalitarian, classless State.
- Anarchism, a concept that is resistant to any form of domination that promotes individual freedom in all areas. Anarchism advocates excess communism and the abolition of the State.
The Manifesto of the Communist Party is a historic document that allows us to better understand the State of society at that time.