Anti-Americanism in the twentieth century
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Anti-Americanism is a very complex concept that combines many considerations. Anti-Americanism refers to an attitude of opposition and systematic and more or less virulent criticism against the United States.
There were a number of ways of being anti-American, not just the communist one (anti-Americanism did not die with the demise of the USSR), but also a fascist, humanist, fundamentalist, and many others. Anti-Americanism was also a protest against the so-called Americanization of Europe and the rest of the world. Thus one must avoid the pitfall of focusing on Communism and thus cover the fields of politics, economics and culture. The Second World War was clearly a first major break. The second was less clear although it appeared that the 1990s were a hinge.
There has always been a universalistic project in the U.S. (as in France): the American Revolution was a carrier of universal values (Preamble to the Constitution, human rights, but also free market economy offering to all, regardless of birth, the opportunity to do: see A. Smith, the Wealth of Nations). The American Revolution was part of history as universal political project, as the French Revolution. This had been understood correctly by Tocqueville.
From the beginning of the century, and probably even before that, but to a lesser extent, criticism of the American political system, has been present in different ways. Critics on the left are a Marxist critique of denunciation of bourgeois democracy and representative democracy a false blocks the formation of a working class. But this criticism has not left the United States more than any other capitalist power, even though this country seems to be the nerve center of capitalism. Moreover, after the Bolshevik revolution, Wilson speaks in a more accommodating manner than the European leaders. Anti-Americanism on the left is diluted in a revolutionary discourse generally, and it seems less central than anti-Americanism on the right, that was very much present in the interwar period.
Things are different with respect to the economy. Europeans have seen before the innovations introduced by the Americans. See World's Fair Crystal Palace in 1851 and one in Paris in 1889, when one stands before the American press, and marvels at the sight of machine tools of Taylor. What must be added is an aggressive U.S. policy of exports, especially in the 1920s. Discourse of modernity brought by the Americans. In this context of high-profile U.S. emerges from the 1920 speech centered on the de-humanization caused by the American industry.
Tags: Anti American sentiments in twentieth century; more than one way of being Anti American; Communists; economy; politics; culture;