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  1. Tension exists between the need to limit government and to ensure good government
  2. Liberty
  3. Equality
  4. Equality of condition
  5. Affirmative action programs
  6. Rule of law

There is a tension between the federal government and the states' government, the idea is where does the government stop and let people live their lives? So, there is a tension between the need to limit the government and the needs to ensure it because we do expect a good government, people have varied expectation of the government.

One thing that brings about these contradictions about differences in places is that the U.S, by nature, is a fragmented country, especially in the way that it is governed and devolved, the idea of decentralizing.

It has been the federal government that has been the protector of these values more than the states. At local levels, any kind of violation of these rights (liberty, individualism?) has been taking place, basically in the states. It is always in the states that these violations occur, it's up to the federal government to solve these problems, the states would do that also but it is more often the federal government who come to correct the violations of the Constitution, things which are not constitutional.

[...] -especially concerning racial acceptance, freedom of expression and criminal procedural rights For a long time, many states had different practices, many states have different ways of dealing with these people who committed different crimes. The problem is that the states are not coordinated as far as the laws go, so the federal government come and try to have equality for all people. Liberty -Americans generally support free speech and opinion Generally, American beliefs are regarding the free speech (1st Amendment). Americans are very concerned about protecting their opinion. They support the 1st Amendment and the right to free speech. [...]


[...] One of the goals in America is to give a kind of equal base. They were segregated schools and they were not equal: the teachers were not paid the same, the buildings were not the same. BUT Equality of condition -Material inequalities: People who criticize the Republicans said that the equality of opportunity is not an equality of condition: there are people who are poor and people who are rich, inequality of condition exist, this is a material inequality. The government has to correct this inequality also. [...]


[...] The idea is to protect the individuals. Minorities are important. If one person feels that his rights are violated, he can complain. -Self-reliance: Americans are expected to rely on themselves, to depend on anyone else but themselves and this includes the government. -Economic individualism: -Employment is essential for Americans, if they don't have a job, they are dependent on the government. -Acceptance of job insecurity: Americans are willing to accept the fact that their employer can fire them in 2 weeks, this is the rule in the United States. [...]


[...] Clinton, under the pressure from the Republicans changed welfare: so AFDC became TANF (Temporary Aid for Needy Families). AFDC was eliminated. TANF is a welfare program available for poor people but now it is temporary, it is not unlimited, the government gives this money only for 5 years. People should try to do something about their life not to become dependent on this money. Affirmative action programs -The definition of the Affirmative Action program is ?racial (or gender) preference quotas were enacted at federal, state and local levels in the 1970s?. [...]


[...] Americans believe in these texts. -There are no national regimes ? challenging parties This also goes back to the Third parties. BUT -Decisions can be made without reflection Sometimes, people think that the system is so good but bad decisions can be made, sometimes without reflection. The government takes a decision because it is the decision of the majority and doesn't think that this is a violation for some minorities' rights. -?tree strikes and you're out?: this expression comes from baseball: basically when you are in the offense you have three chances to make a hit and if you lose these chances, you're out and you have to give your chances to the next person. [...]

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