Catholic church and modernity in Western Europe (1850-1914)
- Dior and its communication strategy
- Home Perfume Christian Dior
- Dior, the seamless communication
- J'adore - Dior - the absolute woman
- The world of perfume
- The name of the perfume
- The bottle
- Competitors at the time
- Analysis of the advertising campaign of 2006
- The story of the woman I love in 2006
- The marketing brief
If one looks at the historical classifications, "modernity" appears in the sixteenth century, during the age of humanism and the Renaissance. Modernity is opposed to scholasticism, which it succeeded, and invented a human being who is able to examine himself and operates on an extension of the scope of knowledge. This is called a "Copernican revolution". However, the problem facing the Church is of minor importance. It addresses the dangers posed by the collapse of scholasticism and the churches of the reform, and it responds by establishing a new piety in which control of manners takes a prominent place.
After all manners of control were lost in the Middle Ages where, according to Max Weber, we were soft on fishermen but merciless towards heretics. Firmly rooted in the conscience, the Church did not have to fear the intellectual movement of the Enlightenment, and was confined to the elites who were 'enlightened'. The situation changed radically in the nineteenth century. It acquired a real consciousness of modernity.
For the first time in France, we counted the century as a sign that is seen in the human history as a continuous progress. Denounced or applauded, modernity is in everyone's minds. Thus, Paul Valery wrote: "Modern man is the slave of modernity: there is no progress that is not running at its most complete servitude." The temptation is great to contrast it dramatically with the modern Church, which is a symbol of permanence and conservatism.
In reality, the Church was "negotiating" with modernity constantly. The question is: how does the church fit into the scientific and political modernization and changes in perception and lifestyle in populations in the "mass society"?
On the surface, "modernity" poses "challenges" impossible to meet for the Church. However, a chronological analysis can break this pattern caricature: under Pius IX, the Church remains uncompromising in terms of dogma, but manages to strengthen its organization by centralizing and managing to mobilize people in a new evangelism. Under Leo XIII and Pius X, while realistic policy challenges of universal suffrage and the social question, the Catholic Church reaffirms the superiority of the revealed truth of human reason.
At first glance, the Catholic Church is threatened by modern political, cultural and scientific. Built in the nineteenth century doctrine ultramontane and uncompromising, the Church seems at risk from the construction of nation states, economic development and science and the emergence of the social question.
The progressive construction of nation-states in the second half of the nineteenth century has given rise to a "Roman Question". The emergence of nation states thwarts the will to power of the Holy See and its commitment to the temporal power of the Papal States. Indeed, the reconstruction of the Church after the French Revolution and its impact on Europe is based on strengthening the personal power of the Pope. Previously, the very name of the pope was unknown to most of the faithful. The forced exile of Pius VII when Western Europe was occupied by Napoleon's troops created a sense of commiseration with it.
In addition, the duration of the "reign" of Pius VII was exceptionally long (23 years).This has helped to build emotional ties between the Pope and the faithful. The power of the Holy See is not only a moral but also the temporal power exercised over the States of the Church, located in Italy.
Tags: Western Europe; Catholic Church; modernity; Renaissance; Copernican revolution