China: General presentation and intercultural management
China is a country loaded with culture, which have been followed in Eastern Asia for 4000 years. Today, China can be considered, according to the points of view, as a single civilization or a whole of several civilizations. In the same way, it can be a nation or several nations joined together in the same entity. Chinese civilization is currently the oldest existing civilization; its history is characterized by a succession of division and reunification, and wars and peace processes, in a changing territory. For centuries, China has been one of the most advanced civilizations whose influence is still felt today in many countries in Asia.
Today, it is the third biggest country in terms of size, and the first in terms of its population: every fifth person is Chinese (for the resident population only). The last Chinese imperial dynasty, Qing, witnessed a period of decline during the phase of colonial expansion of the Western countries, starting from the wars of opium. It was only after the victory against the Japanese army in 1945 that China able to constitute itself as a nation and attain independence.
Politically, two distinct States claim to hold sovereignty in China. First is continental China, which governs China and which was established by the communist leader Mao Zedong in 1949 in Beijing. The second is the Republic of China; this government was governed for a long time by the nationalist leader Tchang Kai-chek. It has been established on the island of Taiwan since the victory of the Chinese Communists.
It was founded in 1912 by Sun Yat-SEN on the debris of the Chinese empire of the dynasty of Qing. Today, China is the object of fascination for the rest of the world with its economic development and the reforms of 1978 by Deng Xiaponing and his successors. Today, China is one of the main economic and geopolitical forces in the world.
China is, above all, about the long history of a people, its rich culture, language and special writing, an application that even today continues to intrigue the Western world. If those interested in any aspect of China, such as martial arts, calligraphy, or even cuisine, are becoming more numerous, they will find that that those are some of the few aspects of the "Celestial Empire" difficult to understand. The "real China" is beyond many Western observers, now and in the time of its discovery by the missionaries. In the second half of the twentieth century, the facts pertaining to the ideological battles of Maoism and the Cultural Revolution did not help to clarify the debate.
Today China is in a period of openness and accelerated economic development. Although many challenges remain, it seems that the current reforms have enabled the Chinese people to deploy its industry and its power is now comparable to that of major Western countries. It is now often described as "world factory" and studies have shown that the French exports, in its non-food portion, contained products manufactured in China.
Tags: Cultural Revolution, Maoism, Chinese civilization