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Conflicting Zionisms in the context of George Orwell’s “Notes on Nationalism”

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  1. Introduction.
  2. George Orwell's essay 'Notes on Nationalism'.
    1. Continuum of nationalism.
  3. Orwell's Theory of Nationalism.
  4. Secular and religious Zionism as positive nationalisms.
    1. Religious Zionism's status as a positive nationalism.
    2. Why secular and religious Zionism allied with each other.
    3. The case of El Al vs. Danielowitz.
  5. How and why Religious Zionism preserves the Jewish nature of the state of Israel.
  6. Conclusion.

I begin this essay with an anecdote: when I read the headline announcing the resignation of Fidel Castro, I asked several American friends their instinctive reaction to Castro, regardless of their views on his forty-nine year rule. While the reactions were not as visceral as one might expect (these friends were born toward the end of the Cold War), they tended to describe his rule as ?pointless? or ?negative.? One friend in particular, after giving a relatively positive assessment of his reign over Cuba, added: ?I still think he is an asshole.? These opinions demonstrate a predominantly negative feeling many Americans feel toward communism (and communist Cuba in general), regardless of their thoughts on or knowledge of the ideology's actual merits. Americans considered the existence of a socialist regime a mere ninety miles from Florida a national insult during the Cold War, and this feeling visited itself in a less extreme form on these Americans' children. Regardless of this generation's views on American policy or even the merits of the unfettered market, relatively few have a positive view of Cuba.

[...] Princeton: Princeton University Press Salmon, Yosef. Religion and Zionism: First Encounters. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press Schwartz, Dov. Faith at the Crossroads: A Theological Profile of Religious Zionism. Translated by Batya Stein. Leiden: Brill Shefer vs. State of Israel. 506/88. Supreme Court of the State of Israel (24 November 1993). Stromberg, David. ?Nothing to Write Grandpa Frost.? Ha'aretz 26 January 2008. Online. Available: http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/948073.html February 2008. Yosifof vs. Attorney General. CrimA 112/50. Supreme Court of the State of [...]


[...] Supreme Court of the State of Israel November 1963). Ganin, Zvi. An Uneasy Relationship: American Jewish Leadership and Israel, 1948- 1957. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press Golan, Matti. With Friends like You. New York: The Free Press Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Online. Available: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1950_1959/Law_of_Return_5710- February 2008. Orwell, George. ?Notes on Nationalism.? Originally published in Polemic, London Online. Available: http://www.orwell.ru/library/essays/nationalism/english/e_nat February 2008. Ravitzky, Aviezer. ?Religious and Secular Jews in Israel: A Kulturkampf?? Israel Democracy Institute. Jerusalem: Old City Press Rose, Jacqueline. [...]


[...] In particular, it will show that while religious Zionists focus on Judaism as such, secular Zionists, at least within Israel, direct their loyalty to the State of Israel. Thus, it is most proper to speak of secular Zionism as ?Israeli nationalism? rather than ?Jewish nationalism.? In Orwell's terminology, these forms of Zionism are separate positive nationalisms with opposing goals, rather than complementary forms within a unified movement. Finally, the essay will show that the continued existence of religious Zionism as a positive nationalism, with its focus on Judaism as a religion, rather than as a culture or a state, has helped preserve the Jewish nature of the state. [...]

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