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Contrast and compare the political ideology, support base and political strategy of the Pakistani Jamaat-i-Islami and the Iranian Islamic Revolution

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  1. Introduction
  2. Comparing the theories: The Jamaat and the Iranian Revolutionary thoughts
    1. Islamism as a common Muslim subjectivity: Islam as the centre and the West as a rejected other
    2. Differences in the transition to the Islamic state: Disagreements about the means, quarrels about the men
  3. Confronting the practices: The Jamaat and the Iranian Revolution in action
    1. Differing social support mobilization: The pious bourgeoisie and lower-middle strata's party and the 'catch-it-all' movement
    2. Antagonist political strategies: Participation and pressure against hegemony and repression
  4. Conclusion
  5. Bibliography

The events of this beginning of century have shown the resistance and the diversity of an Islamism, which certain had already buried.
According to Bobby S. Sayyid, ?Islamism is a discourse that attempts to centre Islam within the political order. Islamism can range from the assertion of a Muslim subjectivity to full-blooded attempt to reconstruct society on Islamic principles', and ?Islamists are people who use the language of Islamic metaphors to think through their political destinies, those who see in Islam their political future'. Thus, Islamism is not an essence, but a discursive construction of reality. Consequently, understanding Islamism means necessary taking account of the ideologies, programmes and practices of the various groups, which claim that Islam is a comprehensive view of the world. Islamism is what Islamists make - and said - of it. That is why the category of ?Islamism' can only be understood through an examination of the differences and similarities between its main groups.
Thus, the purpose of this essay is to compare the political theories, social support and politics of two of the major radical Islamic movements: the Pakistani Jamaat-i-Islami (the Jamaat) and the Iranian Islamic Revolution (the IR).
The Jamaat and the IR explained the need for the setting of an Islamic state and proposed to lead this process with popular support. Consequently, these movements encompass abstract explanations and positive actions, which are interrelated in such a manner that one cannot be comprehended without the other. That is why we will contrast successively the theoretical logics (I) and the socio-political dynamics (II) of the Jamaat and the Iranian Revolution

[...] This process is better illustrated by the letter he sent in 1988 to Iranian President Khamenei, when he wrote: government is empowered to unilaterally revoke any sharia agreement which it has concluded with the people when those agreements are contrary to the interest of the country or to Islam'.[5] This example does not present a literal reading of canonical texts but rather an innovative and allegorical reworking, which always uses Islam's words. Thus, the two theories' goals aimed to allow Muslims to live in a totally Islamic environment. [...]

[...] This school, which is the dominant Shiite school, insists on the authority of the imams interpretations. Ahmad, op. cit., p A. M. Ansari, Iran, Islam and democracy: the politics of managing change (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2000), p M. Foucault, Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and other Writings 1977-1984 (London: Routledge, 1988), p (quoted in Ansari, op. cit., p. 40). Ahmad, op. cit., p Ibid, p. 496-498; and G. Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (London/ New York: [...]

[...] Ansari, Iran, Islam and democracy: the politics of managing change (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2000), p - William O. Beeman, ?Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution', in Keddie, Nikki R. (ed.) Religion and Politics in Iran: Shi?ism from Quietism to Revolution (New Haven/ London: Yale University Press, 1983), pp. 191-217. - Didier Billion, ?KHOMEYNI Ruhollah (1902-1989)', in Cordelier, Serge Le dictionnaire historique et politique du 20e siècle (Paris: La Découverte, 2000), pp. [...]

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