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  1. Introduction.
  2. Historical significance of Article 9.
    1. The Japanese Constitution as an international legal interest.
    2. The post-World War II Constitution.
    3. The rising threat of communism in the Far East during the Cold War.
    4. Other lesser treaties developed later.
  3. Current military status.
  4. Military case study: Japanese forces in Iraq.
    1. Japan's decision to support the US-Iraqi war.
    2. The translation of Article 9 - cause for internal polemics within Japan.
    3. The DJP (Democratic Party of Japan).
  5. Political observation.
  6. Japanese defense.
  7. Public opinion.
  8. Conclusion.

The Japanese Self-Defense Force (SDF) was developed as a provisionary force during the Cold War and is restricted under Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. The SDF has been under much scrutiny over the most recent decade. Debates regarding the amendment or abolition of Article 9 itself, are a source of contention in Japanese and global foreign policy. Due to the rise in global involvement in war, the Japanese government is considering changes to its national security strategy with the expansion of military force. Japanese participation in US military endeavors, such as occupation of troops in Iraq, is in particular, highly contested in the international arena. Not only is the US the central authority and developer of the Japanese Constitution, but US use of Japanese force stretches and even violates the implementation of the established statute. There is clearly a double standard present.

[...] There appears to be a generational conflict with regard to recent dealings with the Japanese Constitution. One report by BBC interviewed several individuals regarding their positions. It was found that those of the pre- WWII generation, who experienced the horror of defeat, were against changes to the Constitution, including Article 9.[45] They did not want their children to experience war.[46] Those of the post-WWII generation did not want to be hindered from addressing current international issues and support the amendment or abolition of the Constitution with regards to Article 9 and war policy.[47] Any such amendments would need to be passed by both houses of the Diet, which consequently requires the consensus of representatives and most importantly, the people. [...]

[...] As a result, the US insisted that Japan rearm; Japan refused.[12] Further efforts of the US to negotiate Japanese defense included US-Japan Security Treaty?. This allowed the US to intervene in Japan's defense as well as utilize facilities and bases in Japan. The Japanese populace was split on this decision, but the majority supported this action.[13] With this agreement, it is implied that the US would be Japan's main defense and military supplier. However, there was an expiration date on this treaty. [...]

[...] Japanese defense policy relies on its own forces to defend against smaller disputes while the US defends against larger quarrels.[17] The significance of Article 9 lies solely on the Japanese persistence in the support of peace under this statute rather than obtaining a majority to push for its abolition.[18] This also draws particular attention because, despite foreign pressure to develop a military by the US, the internal consensus within Japan seems to be unmoved. Current Military Status While the ?belligerency of the state? is not recognized, the right of the people to develop a form of protection is accounted for in the Constitution. [...]

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