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The struggle for democracy: An analysis of false flag terrorism in post-war Italy and its contemporary relevance

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  1. introduction.
    1. Analyzing politics - attempt to understand the evolution and application of idea.
    2. core of this construction of the individual is the concept of freedom.
  2. The post-Second World War period.
    1. Characterized by the competition of two diametrically opposed political and ideological identities.
    2. The United States.
    3. The easiest way to combat Communism.
  3. The overarching strategy for establishing a precedent for US interference in Italian affairs.
  4. Operation Gladio.
    1. The nature of the operation.
    2. Purpose - perpetuate one ideology over another.

To analyze politics is to attempt to understand the evolution and application of ideas in circumstances that are seldom clearly defined. These ideas are formulated into ideological structures that become the governing principles of specific political philosophies. Words such as morals, culture, freedom, and purpose are but a few examples of the overarching concepts that fit within the context of politics and ideologies, and their influence on the course of individual and social development. Indeed, within the framework of liberalism, the individual is of supreme and fundamental importance, valued by Immanuel Kant as ?ends in themselves .? The liberal ideology is therefore ?united in [its] desire to create a society in which each person is capable of developing and flourishing to the fullness of his or her potential .? At the core of this construction of the individual is the concept of freedom, a ?natural right? that extends ?the ability to think or act as one wishes [?] by exercising choice .? Yet, it is here, within this idea of freedom, that questions arise into how to ensure freedom for all in a world of rapid and drastic changes and expansion, for each individual, independently entitled to that which they may deem rightfully theirs as guaranteed under the power of natural rights, may find their interests in conflict with those of others.

[...] Daniel Gasner, author of Terrorism in Western Europe: An Approach to NATO's Secret Stay- Behind Armies, and a Senior Researcher at the center for Security Studies in Zurich, Switzerland, contests that the purpose of Gladio, as it was known in Italy, and the entire Stay-Behind operation, was to prevent potential Soviet invasion and occupation of Western Europe, as well as the coming to power of Communist parties[17].? He elaborates upon the American and British fears that the ?strong Italian Communist Party in alliance with the Italian Socialist Party might weaken NATO from within[18].? The response to this believed threat was a ?strategy of tension to weaken the political parties on the left in Italy[19].? Judge Felice Casson, who originally discovered the secret armies in the summer of 1990 while researching acts of right-wing terrorism, substantiates this claim in his statement that Gladio existed to ?create tension within the country to promote conservative, reactionary social and political tendencies[20].? The best documented example of this strategy put into practice was the Peteano bombing of 1972, in which three members of the Carabinieri, the Italian paramilitary police, were killed by a car bomb. [...]


[...] Contemporary Italy: Economy, Society, and Politics Since 1945. 2nd ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited Heywood, Andrew. Political Ideologies: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Heywood 29 Heywood 29 Sassoon, Donald. Contemporary Italy: Economy, Society, and Politics Since 1945. 2nd ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited Sassoon 54 Sassoon 54 Sassoon 73 Hellman, Stephen. "Italian Communism in the First Repubic." The [...]

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