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U.S. policy towards Israel and OPEC

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  1. Objectives of the United States basic foreign policy in the Middle East.
  2. Effects of the United State's pro-Israel policies.
  3. Economic aid to Israel by the United States.
  4. The Six Day War - June 1967.
  5. Lack of effort in Israel's attempt to negotiate peace with Egypt and Syria.
  6. The goal sought by the Arab nations in placing an embargo on the United States.
  7. The effect of the Arab Oil Embargo on the United States.

The Arab oil embargo of 1973 had no significant effect in changing the United States pro-Israeli policies, as the threat of an economic sanction alone did not induce policy changes. The embargo did however influence U.S. policy changes toward OPEC member countries, especially in the Middle East region where U.S. pushed for a settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Domestically, it compelled the United States to seek alternate sources of energy and establish institutions to deal with the lack of oil during the embargo as well as develop preventative methods for the future while attempting to lessen its dependency on OPEC countries.

[...] After the embargo, the United States began to increase its attention toward the security of the Middle East in order to make certain oil producing countries were not threatened in any way which would impede United States acquisition of oil.[xxxvii] Arab nations criticized the United States for its lack of attention to the Middle East prior to the embargo, but since then, Kissinger devoted much of his time on trying to negotiate a settle of the Arab-Israeli conflict.[xxxviii] Kissinger's efforts of shuttle diplomacy between Israel and Egypt were noticed by Egyptian President Sadat, who detected progress in United States policy in January 1974.[xxxix] Saudi Arabia was the ?central bank of the world oil market,?[xl] and the United States recognized this concerning their policies toward Saudi Arabia. [...]

[...] Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007) p 51. [iii] Major Cozy E. Bailey, ?U.S. Policy Toward Israel: The Special Relationship,? 1990. Ibid Cheryl A. Rubenberg, Israel and the American National Interest, A Critical Examination (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986) p 51. Eric Watkins, Unfolding US Policy in the Middle International Affairs, Vol No (Jan. 1997) p 3. [vii] Rubenberg 50 [viii] Mearsheimer and Walt 43 Ibid 40 Ibid 40 Ibid 26 [xii] Ibid 26 [xiii] Ibid 37 [xiv] Ibid 42 The Middle East [xvi] Ibid 168 [xvii] Rubenberg 91 [xviii] The Middle East [xix] Ibid 170 Mearsheimer and Walt [xxi] Ibid [xxii] The Middle East [xxiii] Ibid [xxiv] Mearsheimer and Walt [xxv] Ibid [xxvi] The Middle East [xxvii] Ibid [xxviii] Bailey [xxix] Mearsheimer and Walt [xxx] Ibid [xxxi] Abdolhamid Gholamnezhad, ?Critical Choices for OPEC Members and the United States,? The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol No (March 1981) [xxxii] Ibid [xxxiii] The Middle East [xxxiv] Ibid [xxxv] Ibid [xxxvi] Gholamnezhad [xxxvii] Dr. [...]

[...] ?That the United States so wholeheartedly supported the claim of one group while undertaking no effort on behalf of the other is further testament to the political expediency that characterized the American position.?[vii] Lastly, United States support of Israel in the October War in 1973 and decision to provide Israel with a massive arms resupply, triggered an Arab oil embargo and production decrease that quickly sent the world oil prices soaring and imposed significant economic costs on the United States and its allies.?[viii] The United States policies have remained pro-Israeli regardless of the detriment the U.S. [...]

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