A comparative study of the senators of Canada and the senators of the United States
Canada and the United States adopt the bicameral legislature. This means that they have both the Upper and Lower Houses elected by the citizens. A comparison between the Canadian and the US mode translates to establishing a comparison with one of the two systems which influenced it the most. The British North America Act was adopted in 1867 by the British Parliament that adopted the basic elements of the British mode of government.
The federal structure of Canada, for its part, was inspired by the American model, which established a comparison between the senators of the American and Canadian political regime. The traditional doctrines are in existence in the Upper House and form a principle part of participation of the components of the federal bodies of the State. The federate States are normally represented independently.
The characteristics of the Upper Houses lie in the fact that they do not ensure a direct and proportional representation of the people. By their mode of nomination, they ensure more territorial weightage of the States than their institutional influence. The United States and Canada are both Federal states and the Senate occupies an important place in the operation of the political system. Its role differs because of the specific characteristics to each country.
The principal distinction between the two countries rests on the important differences which are present due to their system of governance. Thus, Canada has a constitutional monarchy while the United States is republic. This aspect implies consequences on the operation of the political regime of the concerned country. In this respect, the place of the senators and their role within the political institutions depends on the form of the organization of the system of government, whether presidential or parliamentary. After having seen the similarities between the senators, we will consider their own specificity.
We will examine the power to control that exerts the American senators and gives them an authority substantially higher than that of the Canadian senators. The role and function of the Senate of Canada and the United States were originally the same, that of an upper house in a federal system. History shows that the United States Senate has been created to provide a less vertical balance between federal and state level as to ensure protection of the federal states with smaller populations.
The second chamber has been adopted for several reasons, the main one being the representation at a national level of the constituent parts of the federal system and the representation of a particular class that would act as a barrier against the progressive conservative potential of the lower house. However, nowadays the main reason for a second chamber seems to be more the possibility it offers to affix a second opinion on a legislative work.
This is underlined by R J. and D. Jackson: "the essential case for upper house has always been that the formulation of legislative and policy issues ought to receive a second consideration, and it can possibly be rejected, or delayed, by a different chamber from the first in character and composition.?
Tags: British Parliament, American and Canadian political regime, Upper House, American senators, Senate of Canada