Afghanistan: Opium, oil and Taliban
- Le secteur du vin
- Présentation du secteur
- Les fondamentaux du secteur
- L'analyse du secteur du vin
- Analyse concurrentielle du secteur
- Analyse du marché du secteur considéré
- Les stratégies dans le secteur du vin
- Les motivations stratégiques des entreprises du secteur
- Les axes stratégiques et les moyens de mise en 'uvre : les modèles de développement
- Les principaux faits marquants et les mouvements stratégiques intervenus dans le secteur entre 2001 et mi-2004, et les perspectives d'évolution
The attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States have roots dating from the year 1990. These criminal acts are the consequences of all the American political decisions in Central Asia. At the time of the collapse of the USSR, important oil and gas layers were discovered in Central Asia and more particularly in the Caspian Sea (which accounts for 80% of the surface of France).
The gas and oil are mainly concentrated in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. These two states requested the assistance of American oil companies. From 1990, they set up triple gears. In 25 years, Afghanistan, one of the poorest countries in the world, defied the two great military powers: the USSR and the United States. Afghanistan is thus a paradoxical power.
The road to Iran involves the construction of a pipeline and a pipeline that would cross Iran, which would result in the Persian Gulf. The project is interesting because the relief of Iran is right. This project was initiated in 1991/1992 will be quickly abandoned because of two obstacles: political (diplomatic relations with the U.S. since 1979) and legal (boycott of companies investing in Iran).
After the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979, Iran was ruled by a religious leader hostile to the United States: Ayatollah Khomeini. In 1979, he ordered the attacks against the United States. For over a year, fifty Americans (most protected by diplomatic immunity) were held hostage. The helicopters that were to rescue the hostages have crashed in a sandstorm. Following this tragic event, Jimmy Carter lost the election.
Today, a company can not settle or invest in Iran because it would call for a boycott of the company. In 1996 the U.S. Congress passed the law ILSA (Iran Libya Sanctions Act) also known as Kennedy D'Amato law to punish the states sponsoring terrorism. It prohibits investments in the energy sector in excess of 20 million. Moreover, this law is extra-territorial. The oil companies, American or foreign, will then abandon the idea of going through Iran.
The road to Turkey is of great interest for the Americans as transport is secure because Turkey is a NATO member.
The pipeline would pass through the eastern part of Turkey. Or in this part, saw a minority, a distinct people: the Kurds. They represent 20% of the Turkish population and they are at war against the central government since the 1960s. The risk of sabotage would be particularly high.
The Turkish state does not approve this project. Turkey transits through much of the Russian oil. One of the first resources of Turkey is tourism. But if the pipeline was built, there would be a risk of damage much higher.
The Turkish government does not affect tourism revenue with an oil spill. Turkey is one of the five active working countries in the tourism industry. The risk is that to strengthen radical movements.
Tags: Afghanistan; Iran; Turkey; opium; oil; Taliban