African chaos: Causes and consequences
Africa has faced very important ethnic conflicts since the end of the Cold war in 1991. These conflicts had destabilized the countries; caused the fall of the modes in places and led to the massacres in large scales in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Rwanda. Adjacent states and stable States underwent the repercussions of the civil wars close to the incursions to unverifiable armed bands.
The conflicts on the African continent have resulted in the death of more than 4 million since 1991. Because of its permanent instability, Africa became incomprehensible for a majority of Europeans. The African continent has seen many civil wars which degenerated into regional conflicts.
Indeed, Africa is in a structural crisis since the end of the Cold war because of ethnic antagonisms; the exacerbation of the religious feelings; the instability of the political systems and the permanent economic and social crises.
This paper will highlight some of the causes for the chaos in Africa. The different factors that come together most often give rise to crises. The types of conflicts in Africa are diverse. They are also known to be an aggravating phenomenon.
A distinction is made in African countries, by three main destabilizing factors: first the failure of states which are often capable of performing their missions, and weak economies with fragile structures that do not ensure a living wage to populations, and finally the social, the loss of reference points that results from rapid urbanization, population explosion and a deep identity crisis.
Many states are experiencing serious problems functioning in that they are capable of performing their basic duties such as justice and the safety of persons on the national territory. Indeed, corruption is widespread and chronic lack of resources does not allow for a lasting stability.
However, to rectify the situation and grant funding, the partners of these states are demanding more democracy and justice. Regrettably, the transition to this new era of democratization itself creates instability.
For example, the estate of the Ivorian president Houphoet Boigny was not well managed, and this led to a civil war. The democratic process and the multi-Ivorian have in fact exacerbated the conflicts between the Senufo and Malinke of the North and the Baoules and Betes of the south. The election of President Gbagbo has not calmed the situation, nor prevented the mutiny of ethnic North who never accepted his election victory.
Ever since the failed coup of September 2002, Cote d'Ivoire has been divided. Similarly, the succession of President Eyadema of Togo, in 2005, was achieved in very poor conditions. His son, Faure Gnassimbe, who took over the power after the elections in April 2005, used the military crackdown against the protests. To avoid excessive instability, international authorities have endorsed this victory that still remains questionable.
The tensions and clashes disrupt local economies. In many cases, areas of famine that were created correspond to areas of unrest. However, this context of tension breaks the social balance, especially in the countryside where the inability to cultivate the land produces in these rural societies, a narrowing of the food economies.
Tags: African chaos; causes and consequences; conflicts on the African continent; disruption of local economies;