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British housing policies Case study: Impact on the social exclusion experienced by the Pakistani minority

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The social exclusions.
  3. The condition of African-Caribbean and Africans.
  4. The situation of the Pakistanis.
    1. The housing policies for the Pakistanis.
    2. The effects of such policies.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Bibliography.

Water and food are commonly accepted as the basic needs of life. Housing, by providing us a shelter, is also necessary so that you survive. Therefore it is also a fundamental need. However, every house should not only be a shelter, but also a real home. What makes a house a home is a complex combination of factors. Sociologists usually agree to define a home as ?an index of social status, an arena of intimate relationships, a refuge, a container of possessions and icons, and even the carrier of one's self image? . It is a place that provides ?a sense of security, autonomy, privacy, belonging, personal identity, choice, expression, achievement and pride? .These perceptions are present or not depending on ?the way in which the house is designed and used and relationships with neighbors and community? .

[...] Because of this form of discrimination, ?People from minority ethnic groups who are social housing tenants live in the most deprived areas and they are generally over- represented in deprived inner city areas?[11]. They are also very often confronted to another form of discrimination called ?subjective racism?[12], which is an affirmed racism expressed for example by private landlords. However, if all minorities are more likely to live in poor housing than White people, some groups are further on with being socially included in British society and experience less difficulties. [...]

[...] In our minds, owner occupation is still associated with middle-class socio-economic groups and affluent households. In many respects, these views are well-founded, in that the majority of owner- occupiers belong to professional and managerial groups. However, this is only a partial picture: ownership has become affordable not only for wealthy people, but also for members of lower classes. It is nowadays a very diverse sector, and home ownership should not be necessarily seen as a dream. The Pakistani case shows us on the contrary, that it is often just a last resort. [...]

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