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China’s population policy and the gender disparity

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  1. Introduction
  2. Beginning of retail trade
    1. Early trade
    2. Early market
    3. First shops
    4. Origins of retail chains
    5. From family business to retail structure
  3. History of self-service stores
  4. Origin of distance retailing
  5. Types of retail outlet
    1. Clothing and accessory store
    2. Department store
    3. Distance retailing
    4. Door-to-door retailing
  6. Types of retail chains
  7. Definition of a party and event retailing
  8. Definition of a single independent non-franchised store
  9. Definition of a street market
  10. Supermarket
    1. History
  11. Van-retailing
  12. Definitions of wholesaler, retailer, shipper and a consumer
  13. Future of retail marketing in India
  14. Facts of retail marketing in India
  15. Conclusion

Over the last few centuries, governments have taken an increased interest in the rate of population growth in their nations. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a nation where population management has been implemented in what can be said to be an extreme way. It is significant because the way that the PRC has intervened in human reproduction is broad-ranging and unprecedented in contemporary society. It is also an interesting topic of study because little is known about the effects of population politics. Since the PRC was founded in 1949, population has become a topic of central interest to the government. It began with an attempt to keep people in rural areas, but then became involved with trying to manage the number of people born. In 1979, China adopted the one-child policy, which prohibits urban families from having more than one child, but does allow for exceptions in many cases.

[...] The one-child policy, which prohibits urban families from having more than one child, was originally implemented in an effort to decrease the social, economic and environmental problems that a growing population cause, but success of this program depends on how it is perceived, and its consequences in terms of gender disparity can argue that the policy is a failure. As has been discussed, one notable consequence of this policy has been a growing disparity between the numbers of males and females being raised in Chinese society, and the way that infant (and even pre-birth) females are treated. [...]

[...] As soon as it became clear what the effect of this policy would be on females, the issue has been taboo in Chinese society, and people have been discouraged from discussing it, or acting to reverse it. (Greenhalgh and Winckler, 2005). The government has been aware of the effects it has had on gender disparity, but has not provided any meaningful solutions other than to say that killing girls is wrong, a position that does very little to discourage the practice. [...]

[...] This is a direct result of the one-child policy and the undeniable pressure that is placed on Chinese women, especially rural women to have a son as opposed to a daughter. Having a daughter as opposed to a son has long brought shame to the family, and has even warranted charges by the community of deserving it because of their behavior in a past life. One such mother who has two girls described her situation as follows: dare not go outside. [...]

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