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Burundi: Will the heart of Africa stay poor for ever?

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  1. General introduction.
  2. History of Burundi.
    1. Before the colonization.
    2. During the colonization.
    3. Since the decolonization.
  3. The current economic situation.
    1. GDP.
    2. GDP per capita.
    3. Natural resources and sectors.
    4. Exports and imports partners.
  4. The economic and social difficulties for the country.
    1. The population.
    2. The total fertility rate.
    3. The life expectancy at birth.
    4. The human development index.
    5. About education.
  5. The action of the international community.
  6. Conclusion.
  7. My point of view.
  8. Sources.

Burundi is a landlocked country with an equatorial climate on the east of Africa. The country is called "The heart of Africa" and it is located in a hilly and mountainous place, dropping to a plateau in the east. There are some plains but no maritime claims. Concerning its area, the country is slightly smaller than Maryland with 27,830 sq km. The country is bordered by 3 other countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania and by 3 lakes. The most important is the Lake Tanganyika. Burundi is divided into 17 provinces, 117 communes and 2,638 colonies. The capital is Bujumbura. To answer the question ?will Burundi stay poor for ever??, firstly we are going to discuss the history of the country. In fact, the history of the country - specially the last 40 years ? has influenced the current economic situation of the country. Then we will try to explain this situation and understand the economic and social difficulties of Burundi and discover the actions of the international community which play an important role to help the country. To conclude we will discuss the future of the country.

[...] These ancestors of pygmy come from the West and speak a Bantu language. Between the 10th and the 15th century communities the Hutus, a nation of farmers, and the Tutsis, pastors from the North - establish in the current territory of Burundi. These three communities of different origins are similar to each other over time and share the same Bantu language: the Kirundi. In the 16th century, Burundi becomes a kingdom characterized by a hierarchical political authority. The king is called nwami, which represents the image of Imana, the supreme god. [...]

[...] In 1929, Belgians created a "school for sons of chiefs" to ensure the continuity of the system. The Belgians imposed an identity card in 1933 with the mention ethnic Tutsi or Hutu, which had the effect of accentuating the social distinction between the two ethnic groups, which was transformed later in segregation "race". The Hutus were subjected to forced labour in plantations, construction sites, sawmills. Moreover Belgians ordered the Tutsis to beat the Hutus. A strong dichotomy began. The distinction between the 2 communities meant that the Tutsis became rich and Hutus poor. [...]

[...] Nevertheless of the 19 delegations of Burundi signed the agreement of Arusha for peace in Burundi with the council of security of the United Nations for stopping fights. In 2005, a new constitution was established and a new government elected, lead by President Pierre Nkurunziza. Pierre Nkurunziza, the new president of Burundi The current economic situation As a result of civil war, Burundi is one of the less developed countries and one of the poorest of the world in terms of GDP. [...]

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